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Samuel F. B. Morse

Born: 1791, Charlestown, Massachusetts, United States of America
Died: 1872, New York, New York, United States of America

Gallery of the Louvre
1831–33

Oil on canvas
Image: 73 3/4 x 108 in. (187.3 x 274.3 cm)
Frame: 88 3/4 x 123 in. (225.4 x 312.4 cm)
Terra Foundation for American Art, Daniel J. Terra Collection, 1992.51
Signed: Bottom center: SFBM/1833
Artist Name: []

Interpretation

One of the most ambitious works of Samuel F. B. Morse’s artistic career, Gallery of the Louvre shows the Salon Carré in the Louvre art museum in Paris hung with masterpieces of European art primarily from the Renaissance and Baroque periods. The magnificent scale of his canvas allowed Morse to include some 40 artworks in the image and to capture the grandeur of the space it depicts; the figures of visitors and copyists, in contemporary dress, suggest the accessibility of the museum to ordinary people and by extension to the viewer.

Morse began the painting in the gallery itself and completed it in New York. He intended it not only to inform Americans about the great heritage of European art but also to inspire them to build on its legacy as they developed a distinct cultural identity for the youthful nation. The image goes beyond mere documentation of the Louvre's collection to advocate an important role for art museums in a democratic society. In showcasing the importance of learning from the great art of the past, Gallery of the Louvre implies that Americans could build on and perhaps surpass those achievements.

Formerly the residence of the French monarchy, the Louvre became a public art museum in 1793. During Morse's first visit, in 1830, the Salon Carré displayed what were then considered the museum's greatest masterpieces. By the time of his second visit, the following year, the gallery had been reinstalled with the French national collection of contemporary art; it also served as the site of the annual Paris Salon, the prestigious government-sponsored exhibition. In Gallery of the Louvre, Morse created his own imaginative installation of Old Master treasures from the Louvre’s collection, selecting works he felt conveyed exalted ideals of art and identifying them in a published guide. He never disclosed his reasons for his particular choices of masterworks included in his painting, although his selection reveals his admiration of the Venetian masters.

Gallery of the Louvre belongs to the artistic genre known as the gallery picture, first popularized in the seventeenth century. Such images present art objects through recognizable copies of real or imaginary works of art that are related to foreground figures. Gallery pictures demonstrate their creators’ intimate knowledge of masterpieces and their facility in painting a range of subjects in diverse styles. Gallery of the Louvre is the only known major example of a gallery picture in the history of American art. For the project, Morse worked on site to make small-scale copies of many of the paintings shown in his image, although only one, Francis I, Study for “Gallery of the Louvre” (TF C1984.5) is currently known.

Morse returned to New York in the fall of 1832 with his copies and his unfinished full canvas. When he resumed work on the painting in the winter of 1833 he added the figures in the foreground, but he never identified them. With the exception of the woman and little girl in French provincial dress, seen exiting the Salon Carré, the individuals are believed to be Americans. Scholars are confident that Morse is the centrally placed instructor and that his close friend James Fenimore Cooper, American author of the hugely popular Leatherstocking Tales, stands in the left corner with his wife and seated daughter. The male artist at his easel and the man who stands in awe with his hat in hand at the entrance to the gallery are thought to represent Morse's roommates in Paris, American artists Richard W. Habersham (1812–1889) and Horatio Greenough (1805–1852), respectively. Morse leans over the shoulder of a young woman thought to be his daughter, Susan Walker Morse, offering guidance as she sketches the head of a figure from Paolo Veronese’s Wedding Feast at Cana. The other female copyist has yet to be identified.

When Morse completed the painting, he considered exhibiting it in various locations, but he only did so in New York and New Haven, Connecticut. Connoisseurs praised Gallery of the Louvre, but lacking a discernible narrative it failed to attract either the interest of a wider public or a coveted commission for a painting to decorate the Rotunda of the U.S. Capitol building in Washington, D.C. Today, however Gallery of the Louvre is recognized as a key work in the development of American art.

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Provenance

The artist
George Hyde Clarke, Hyde Hall (his residence on Otsego Lake), Cooperstown, New York, August 1834
John Townsend, Albany, New York
Julia Townsend Munroe, Syracuse, New York, by 1875 (daughter of John Townsend)
Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, 1884–92 (extended loan)
Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, 1892
Daniel J. Terra Collection, Chicago, Illinois, 1982
Terra Foundation for the Arts Collection, Chicago, Illinois, 1992

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Exhibition History

Exhibition, Pine Street and Broadway, New York, New York, September 1833.

Exhibition, Franklin Hall, (corner of Church and Crain Streets), New Haven, Connecticut, May 2–29, 1834.

Annual Art Exhibitions, Crouse College Art Gallery, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, 1890–?.

The Exhibition of Paintings by Samuel Finley Breese Morse, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York (organizer). Venue: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, February 16–March 27, 1932 (as Exhibition of the Gallery of the Louvre). [exh. cat.]

Exhibition, Addison Gallery, Andover, Massachusetts, 1939.

Exhibition, Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts, Syracuse, New York, 1943.

Pictures Within Pictures, Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut (organizer). Venue: Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut, November 9–December 31, 1949, no. 29 (as The Gallery of the Louvre). [exh. cat.]

125 Years of American Art, Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts, Syracuse, New York, September 16–October 11, 1953, no. 7.

Exhibition, Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts, Syracuse, New York, April 7–29, 1956.

Exhibition, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (organizer). Venues: Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1957; Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, Michigan, 1958; Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute, Utica, New York, 1958; Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, Virginia, 1958; Currier Gallery of Art, Manchester, New Hampshire, 1958.

Paintings, Inventions, Daguerreotypes and Documents of Samuel F.B. Morse, Vassar College Art Gallery, Poughkeepsie, New York (organizer). Venue: Vassar College Art Gallery, Poughkeepsie, New York, February 24–March 24, 1961, no. 18 (as Exhibition Gallery of the Louvre).

Special New Year's Exhibition, The Lowe Art Center, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York (organizer). Venue: The Lowe Art Center, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, December 27, 1961-January 14, 1962.

Four Centuries of American Art, The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis, Minnesota (organizer). Venue: The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis, Minnesota, November 27, 1963–January 19, 1964. [exh. cat.]

Exhibition, The Lowe Art Center, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, December 1966–January 1967.

Exhibition, The Morehead Museum, Montreal, Canada, June 8–July 30, 1967.

19th Century America, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York (organizer). Venue: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, April 16-September 7, 1970. [exh. cat.]

The Centennial Exhibition 1870–1970, The Lowe Art Center, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York (organizer). Venue: The Lowe Art Center, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, October 11-November 29, 1970.

American Self-Portraits, International Exhibitions Foundation, Washington, D.C. (organizer). Venues: National Portrait Gallery, Washington, D.C., February 1–March 15, 1974; Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indianapolis, Indiana, April 1–May 15, 1974. [exh. cat.]

Permanent collection installation, Joe and Emily Lowe Art Gallery, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, 1975.

Bi-Centennial Celebration Exhibition, Joe and Emily Lowe Art Gallery, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, February–May, 1976; Everson Museum of Art, Syracuse, New York, Summer 1976; Joe and Emily Lowe Art Gallery, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, Fall-Winter 1976.

Selections from the University Art Collection Exhibition, Joe and Emily Lowe Art Gallery, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, 1979.

Samuel F.B. Morse, Grey Art Gallery and Study Center, New York University, New York, New York (organizer). Venue: Grey Art Gallery and Study Center, New York University, New York, New York, September 14–October 23, 1982. [exh. cat.]

Exhibition, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. (organizer). Venue: National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., December 19–February 13, 1983.

Works by Samuel F.B. Morse from the National Academy of Design, Cheekwood Botanical Gardens and Fine Arts Center, Nashville, Tennessee (organizer). Venue: Cheekwood Botanical Gardens and Fine Arts Center, Nashville, Tennessee, June 11–June 26, 1983.

Samuel Morse's 'Gallery of the Louvre,' Museum of Art, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (organizer). Venue: Museum of Art, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, July 1–August 8, 1983.

A New World: Masterpieces of American Painting, 1760–1910, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts (organizer). Venues: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts, September 7–November 13, 1983; The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., December 7–February 12, 1984; Réunion des musées nationaux, Grand Palais, Paris, France, March 16-June 11, 1984. [exh. cat.]

Masterworks in American Art from the Daniel J. Terra Collection, Terra Museum of American Art, Evanston, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Evanston, Illinois, April 27–September 12, 1985 (exhibited partial run: April 27–late May, 1985).

Samuel F.B. Morse's 'Gallery of the Louvre,' Terra Museum of American Art, Evanston, Illinois (organizer). Venues: Oklahoma Art Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, September 5–November 11, 1984; [modified title] A Masterpiece of Masterpieces, 'The Gallery of the Louvre' by Samuel F.B. Morse, Santa Barbara Museum of Art, Santa Barbara, California, November 16–December 31, 1984; Dallas Museum of Art, Dallas, Texas, January 11–February 28, 1985; Tucson Museum of Art, Tucson, Arizona, March 7–April 21, 1985; Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 4–September 8, 1985; Timken Art Gallery, San Diego, California, October 1–November 17, 1985; Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, Virginia, December 2, 1985–February 9, 1986; Maier Museum of Art, Randolph-Macon Women's College, Lynchburg, Virginia, August 31–November 2, 1986; Dixon Gallery and Gardens, Memphis, Tennessee, November 7-February 4, 1987; Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati, Ohio, February 14–March 20, 1987; Huntington Galleries, Huntington, West Virginia, March 20–May 1, 1988.

A Proud Heritage: Two Centuries of American Art, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, April 21–June 21, 1987. [exh. cat.]

American Painters in France, 1830–1930, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venues: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, June 14–September 3, 1989. [exh. cat.]

Collection Cameo, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, June 1991.

Impressions de toujours: les peintres américains en France, 1865–1915 (Lasting Impressions: American Painters in France, 1865–1915), Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France (organizer). Venue: Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France, June 1–November 1, 1992; April 1–October 31, 1993; April 1–October 30, 1994; April 1–October 31, 1995. [exh. cat.]

Un regard américain sur Paris (An American Glance at Paris), Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France (organizer). Venue: Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France, April 11–October 31, 1997.

American Artists and the Paris Experience, 1880–1910, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, November 22, 1997–March 8, 1998.

Héroïque et le quotidien: les artistes américains, 1820–1920 (The Extraordinary and the Everyday: American Perspectives, 1820–1920), Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France (organizer). Venue: Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France, April 1–November 30, 2001. [exh. cat.]

D'une colonie à une collection: le Musée d'Art Américain Giverny fête ses dix ans (From a Colony to a Collection: Celebrating the Tenth Anniversary of the Musée d'Art Américain Giverny), Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France (organizer). Venue: Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France, March 30–June 16, 2002.

Collection Cameo, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, October 2002.

Culture Revisited: Samuel F. B. Morse's 'Gallery of the Louvre,' Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, July 12–November 3, 2002.

A Place on the Avenue: Terra Museum of American Art Celebrates 15 Years in Chicago, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, November 16, 2002–February 16, 2003 (on exhibit extended run: November 2, 2002–March 2, 2003).

Gallery of the Louvre, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, March 8, 2003–October 31, 2004.

Expanded Galleries of American Art with Loans from the Terra Foundation for American Art Collection, The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, April 15, 2005–May 17, 2006.

Les artistes américaines et le Louvre (American Artists andf the Louvre), Musée du Louvre, Paris, France and Terra Foundation for American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizers). Venue: Musée du Louvre, Paris, France, June 14–September 18, 2006. [exh. cat.]

Exhibited with Louvre Atlanta: Kings as Collectors, High Museum of Art, Atlanta, Georgia and Musée du Louvre, Paris France, (oganizers). Venue: High Museum of Art, Atlanta, Georgia, October 16, 2006–September 2, 2007.

Art in America: 300 Years of Innovation,Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, New York, NY and Terra Foundation for American Art, Chicago, IL (organizers). Venues: National Museum of China, Beijing, China, February 9-April 5, 2007; Shanghai Museum, Shanghai, China, April 30-June 30, 2007; Shanghai Museum of Contemporary Art, Shanghai, China, April 30-June 30, 2007. (Shanghai presentations ran concurrently); The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow, Russia, July 23–September 9, 2007; Guggenheim Bilbao, Bilbao, Spain, October 15, 2007–April 27, 2008 (exhibited in Bilbao). [exh. cat.]

American Stories: Paintings of Everyday Life, 1765–1915, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York and Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California (organizers). Venues: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, October 5, 2009–January 24, 2010; Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California, February 28–May 23, 2010. [exh. cat.] Extended Loan on View, Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut, March 1–June 12, 2011.

A New Look: Samuel F.B. Morse's Gallery of the Louvre, 1831–1833, Terra Foundation for American Art, Chicago Illinois (organizer). Venue: National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, July 3, 2011–July 8, 2012. [exh. brochure]

A New Look: Samuel F.B. Morse's Gallery of the Louvre, 1831-1832, Terra Foundation for American Art, Chicago Illinois (organizer). Venue: Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, July 4, 2012-September 22, 2013. [exh. brochure]

Samuel F. B. Morse’s "Gallery of the Louvre" and the Art of Invention , Terra Foundation for American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens, San Marino, California, January 24, 2015–May 4, 2015; Amon Carter Museum of American Art, Fort Worth, Texas, May 23, 2015–August 23, 2015; Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, Washington, September 16–January 10, 2016; Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas, January 23–April 18, 2016; Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, Michigan, June 18–September 18, 2016; Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Massachusetts, October 8, 2016–January 8, 2017; Reynolda House Museum of American Art, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, February 17–Sunday, June 4, 2017; New Britain Museum of American Art, New Britain, Connecticut, June 17, 2017– October 15, 2017. [exh. cat.]

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Published References

Dunlap, William. History of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States. 2 Vol. New York: George P. Scott & Co., 1834. Text p. 317.

Morse, Samuel F. B. Descriptive Catalogue of the Pictures, Thirty-seven in Number from the Most Celebrated Masters Copied into the Gallery of the Louvre. New York: James Van Norden, 1834.

Mather, Frank Jewett, Jr. Estimates in Art: Series II; Sixteen Essays on American Painters of the Nineteenth Century. New York: H. Holt and Company, 1931. Text p. 31.

Wehle, Harry B. Samuel F.B. Morse: American Painter. (exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1932. Text pp. 21–23; fig. 56 (as The Exhibition Gallery of the Louvre).

Art Digest 14:10 (October 1, 1939): 10. Ill. p. 10.

Mabee, Carleton. The American Leonardo: A Life of Samuel F.B. Morse. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1943. Text pp. 140, 146, 154–55, 157–58, 160-61, 186.

Pictures Within Pictures. (exh. cat., Wadsworth Atheneum). Hartford, Connecticut: Wadsworth Atheneum, 1949. Text cat. no. 29, pp. 18–19.

Seaver, Esther I. "Paintings Show How Artists Picture Art." Art Digest 24 (December 1, 1949): 9, 27. Ill. p. 9.

Larkin, Oliver W. Samuel F.B. Morse and American Democratic Art. Boston, Massachusetts: Little, Brown and Company, 1954. Text pp. 107–10, 114-15, 128.

Flexner, James T. "Yankee Inventor-Painters: Fulton and Morse." Art News Annual 27 (1958): 46–63. Text p. 49; ill. p. 48

Russell, John. "London Letter: Expatriates in Arcadia?" Art in America 47:3 (Fall 1959): 84–86. Ill. p. 84 (as Interior of the Louvre).

Davidson, Marshall B. "What Samuel Wrought." American Heritage 12:3 (April 1961): 12–27. Text p. 25; ill. pp. 24–25.

"Syracuse University to Exhibit Painting by Inventor." Post-Standard (December 31, 1961). Ill.

Olmstead, Anna W. "Gallery of the Louvre, On Exhibition at the Center." Syracuse Herald-American (January 7, 1962): 4. Text and ill. p. 4.

Myer, Connie. "SU Painting to Come Out of Hiding." The Post-Standard (December 31, 1964): 8. Text p. 8.

Dunlap, William. History of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States. Reprint. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1969. Vol. 2, part 2, p. 317; ill. frontispiece (as The Interior of the Louvre).

19th Century America: Paintings and Sculpture; An Exhibition in Celebration of the Hundredth Anniversary of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. (exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1970. Ill. no. 30, p. 27 (color).

"The Paintings of Nineteenth-Century America." The Magazine Antiques 97 (March 1970): 392–97. Ill. p. 395 (color).

Case, Richard G. "Painting with a Past." Syracuse Herald-American (November 8, 1970): 2, 4. Text pp. 2, 4; ill. cover, ill. p. 2.

Frankenstein, Alfred. John Singleton Copley. New York: Time-Life Library of Art, Time-Life Books, 1970. Text pp. 167, 179; ill. pp. 178–79.

Morse, Edward Lind, ed. Samuel F.B. Morse: His Letters and Journals. 2 vols. Reprint. New York: Kraus Reprint Co., 1972. Text I: pp. 421–22, 426; vol. II: p. 27.

Young, Mahonri Sharp. "The American Leonardo." Apollo 5:95 (February 1972): 141–43. Text p. 143; fig. 5, p. 143.

Dickson, Harold E. "Artists as Showmen." American Art Journal 5 (May 1973): 4–17. Text pp. 14–15; fig. 8, p. 14.

Wilmerding, John, ed. The Genius of American Painting. New York: Morrow, 1973. Text p. 99; ill. p. 100.

Forgey, Benjamin. "To See Ourselves." The Washington-Star News (February 1, 1974): D-1, D-5. Text p. D-5.

Artforum 14 (March 1976): 24. Ill. p. 24 (black & white).

Zakon, Ronnie L. The Artist and the Studio in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Cleveland, Ohio: Cleveland Museum of Art, 1978. Text p. 43; pl. 21, p. 44.

Craven, Wayne. "Grand Manner in Early Nineteenth-Century American Painting: Borrowings from Antiquity, the Renaissance, and the Baroque." American Journal 11 (April 1979): 34–37. Ill.

Staiti, Paul Joseph. Samuel F.B. Morse and the Search for the Grand Style. PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1979. Text pp. 3, 5, 13, 25, 29, 55, 95, 357, 361, 363, 373–88, 390–95, 397, 406-407, 409–10, 415, 450-51; ill. CLXXVIII, p. 544 (black & white).

Tatham, David. "Samuel F. B. Morse's Gallery of the Louvre: The Figures in the Foreground." American Art Journal 13 (Autumn 1981): 38–48. Text pp. 38–48; ill. cover (black & white), fig. 1, p. 38 (black & white), fig. 3, p. 42 (black & white detail), fig. 4, p. 45 (black & white detail).

Russell, John. "Samuel Morse Painting Sold for $3.25 Million." The New York Times (July 30, 1982): A1, C24. Text pp. A1, C24; ill. p. A1.

"Newsmakers." Newsweek (August 9, 1982). Text and ill.

"People." Time Magazine (August 9, 1982): 41. Text p. 41; ill. p. 41.

Art & Auction 1981-1982: The Year in Review (September 1982): cover. Ill. cover (color).

Hall, Carla. "National Gallery to Show Samuel Morse's 'Louvre.'" Washington Post (September 15, 1982): B6. Text p. B6.

Cooper, James F. "Fall Art Season Review-Part I." Weekend World (September 17, 1982). Text and ill.

Daxland, John. "Morse: Scientist and Artist Given a Retrospective." Daily News (September 17, 1982). Text and ill.

Lewis, Jo Ann. "Morse, the Painter: Decoding the Inventor's Place in Art History." The Washington Post (September 18, 1982). Text.

Wallach, Amei. "Uplift was the Morse Code of Art." Newsday (September 19, 1982): part II. Text and ill.

"Gallery of the Louvre by Samuel Morse Returns to NYU for Grey Gallery Exhibit." New York University Report (September 23, 1982). Text and ill.

Rubin, Ed. "Famous Inventor Morse's Art Legacy on Exhibit." The Villager (September 23, 1982). Text.

Tallmer, Jerry. "Big Louvre Art Show Stop All via Morse Stop." New York Post (September 25, 1982). Text and ill.

Powell, Earl A. "The Record Sale of a Masterpiece of Masterpieces." Smithsonian 13:7 (October 1982): 144–47. Text pp. 144–47; ill. pp. 144–45.

Ridden, Eric. "More on Morse." The Journal of Commerce (October 8, 1982). Text.

"Singular Combination of American Talents." Connoisseur 212 (October 1982): 16. Ill. (black & white).

Reynolds, Gary A. "Samuel F.B. Morse." Grey Art Gallery Bulletin 5:1 (Fall 1982).

Bumiller, Elisabeth. "Present at the Unveiling." The Washington Post (December 18, 1982): C2. Text and ill. p. C2.

Kirshner, Judith Russi. "The Terra Collection." United: The Magazine of the Friendly Skies (December 1982): 52–59. Ill. pp. 50–51 (color).

Gapp, Paul. "Found: Watercolor-pencil Gem that Rivals Terra's 'Gallery.'" Chicago Tribune (December 12, 1982). Text.

Staiti, Paul J. and Gary A. Reynolds. Samuel F.B. Morse. (exh. cat., Grey Art Gallery and Study Center). New York: Grey Art Gallery and Study Center, 1982. Text pp. 68–73; ill. cover (color), fig. 74, p. 70 (color), fig. 78, p. 73 (black & white detail).

Cikovsky, Jr., Nicolai. Lectures on the Affinity of Painting with the Other Fine Arts by Samuel F.B. Morse. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1983. Text p. 11; ill. cover (color), fig. 8, p. 9 (black & white).

Stebbins Jr., Theodore E. et al. A New World: Masterpieces of American Painting 1760–1910. (exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts). Boston, Massachusetts: Museum of Fine Arts, 1983. Text pp. 51, 220–21; cat. 22, pp. 62–63 (color), p. 220 (color).

Nawrocki, Denis Alan. "Sleuthing in The Arts and Letters." Monthly Detroit (April 1983): 36–38. Text p. 38.

Tatham, David. "Samuel F. B. Morse." Art Journal 43:1 (Spring 1983): 80–82. Text pp. 80–81.

Brenson, Michael. "19th Century U.S. Art Winning New Esteem." The New York Times (June 20, 1983): C14. Text p. C14.

Wilson, William. "American Paintings: A French Connection." International Herald Tribune (September 24–25, 1983).

Elsasser, Glen. "Politics, Diplomacy Bring Crown Jewels of American Art Into Focus." Chicago Tribune (December 20, 1983). Text.

Longenecker, Steve. "Triumphs of an Artist Inventor." The Purdue Engineer (March 1984): 8–9. Text p. 9; ill. p. 8 (black & white).

Calendar. Santa Barbara Museum of Art (November 1984). Text and ill.

Crean, Hugh R. "Samuel F.B. Morse's Gallery of the Louvre: Tribute to a Master and Diary of a Friendship." American Art Journal 16:1 (Winter 1984): 76-81. Text pp. 76–81; fig. 1, p. 76 (color).

Morton, Brian N. Americans in Paris. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The Olivia & Hill Press, 1984. Text pp. 126, 127; ill. (black & white), ill. (black & white detail: James Fenimore Cooper, his wife and daughter, Sarah), ill. (black & white detail: Morse and unidentified student).

Sokol, David M. "The Terra Museum of American Art, Evanston, Illinois." The Magazine Antiques 126:5 (November 1984): 1156–69. Pl. VII, p. 1159 (color).

Focus on TMA (January-February 1985). Text and ill.

Marvel, Bill. "Samuel Morse the Inventor Also Made Splash as Painter." The Hartford Courant (February 1, 1985): D6. Text p. D6.

Staiti, Paul J. "God, Family, and Art: Unpublished Letters from Samuel F.B. Morse." The Archives of American Art Journal 25:4 (1985): 10–15. Ill. p. 15 (black & white).

Gowing, Lawrence. Paintings in the Louvre. New York: Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 1987. Text p. 19; ill. p. 19 (color).

Atkinson, D. Scott et al. A Proud Heritage: Two Centuries of American Art. Edited by Terry A. Neff. (exh. cat., Terra Museum of American Art). Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 1987. Pl. T-12, p. 121 (color).

Cikovsky, Jr., Nicolai. Raphaelle Peale Still Lifes. (exh. cat., National Gallery of Art). Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1988. Text pp. 60–61; fig. 48, p. 60 (black & white).

Kloss, William. Samuel F.B. Morse. New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc., Publishers in association with the National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, 1988. Text pp. 126–30, 135–36, 140; ill. pp. 124–25 (color), p. 128 (color detail).

Sassaman, Richard. "What Hath Morse Wrought?" American History 23:2 (April 1988): 46–49. Text pp. 46-47, 49; ill. pp. 48–49 (color).

Barr, Vilma. "Samuel F.B. Morse: A Master of Communication." Mechanical Engineering 111:7 (July 1989): 76–81. Text p. 78; ill. p. 80 (color).

Jaffe, Irma B., ed. The Italian Presence in American Art, 1760–1860. New York: Fordham University Press, 1989. Ill. no. 11.

Staiti, Paul J. Samuel F.B. Morse. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Cambridge University Press, 1989. Text pp. xvii, 6, 164, 176, 188–207, 215, 233, 235–36, 239; fig. 104, p. 188 (black & white), fig. 110, p. 200 (key), pl. XV (color).

Fink, Lois Marie. American Art at the Nineteenth-Century Salons. Washington, D.C.: National Museum of Art, Smithsonian Institution, 1990. Text pp. 9–10; fig. 1, p. 8 (black & white).

Buck, Louisa and Philip Dodd. Relative Values or What's Art Worth. London, England: BBC Books, 1991. Ill. p. 159 (black & white).

Gallery of the Louvre, Samuel F. B. Morse. Collection Cameo sheet, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, June 1991. Ill. (black & white).

Deitz, Paula. "The Grande Galerie of the Louvre." The Magazine Antiques 140 (September 1991): 368–79. Pl. III, p. 370 (color).

Gerdts, William H. et al. Lasting Impressions: American Painters in France, 1865–1915. (exh. cat., Musée d'Art Américain Giverny). Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 1992. Text pp. 20–22, 127–28; pl. 1, p. 129 (color).

Gerdts, William H. et al. Impressions de toujours: les peintres américains en France, 1865–1915. (exh. cat., Musée d'Art Américain Giverny). Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 1992. Text pp. 20–22, 127–28; pl. 1, p. 129 (color).

Jones, Russell M. "American Painters in Paris: The Rate of Exchange, 1825–1848." Apollo 135:360 (February 1992): 73–77. Text p. 73; fig. 1, p. 75 (detail).

Martin, Jennifer et al. L'art des Etats-Unis. Paris, France: Citadelles & Mazenod, 1992. Text no. 493, p. 613; ill. no. 493, p. 532 (black & white).

Heilbrun, James and Charles M. Gray. The Economics of Art and Culture: An American Perspective. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Ill. cover.

Scorcese, Martin and Jay Cocks. The Age of Innocence: A Portrait of the Film Based on the Novel by Edith Wharton. New York: Newmarket Press, 1993. Ill. pp. 56–57 (color).

Craven, Wayne. American Art: History and Culture. Dubuque, Iowa: Brown & Benchmark, 1994. Text pp. 150–51; fig. 10.20, p. 150 (color).

Wallbank, T. Walter et al. Civilization: Past & Present. New York: Harper Collins College Publishers, 1996. Text p. C-2; ill. opposite p. 768, portfolio 7, no. 1 (color as Exhibition Gallery of the Louvre).

Reymond, Nathalie. Un regard américain sur Paris (An American Glance at Paris). Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 1997. Text pp. 66, 69, 70; ill. p. 68 (color).

"The Beauty of Big." Time Magazine (Spring 1997): 47–54. Ill. p. 48 (color).

New Art Examiner (March 1998): contents page. Ill. (black & white detail).

Strosberg, Eliane. Art and Science. Paris, France: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 1999. Ill. p. 30 (color).

Warrell, Ian. Turner on the Seine. London, England: Tate Gallery Publishing, 1999. Text pp. 20–21; fig. 5, p. 20 (black & white).

Wesley, Sherry. "Gallery of the Louvre." Poughkeepsie Journal (August 8, 1999): The Arts Section, p. 5. Ill. p. 5 (black & white).

Dearinger, David B., ed. Rave Reviews: American Art and Its Critics, 1826–1925. New York: National Academy of Design, 2000. Ill. p. 54 (black & white).

Goldstein, Malcolm. Landscape with Figures: A History of Art Dealing in the United States. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2000. Text p. 19.

Cartwright, Derrick R. The Extraordinary and the Everyday: American Perspectives, 1820–1920. (exh. cat., Musée d'Art Américain Giverny). Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 2001. Text pp. 10, 24 (checklist); ill. p. 28 (color).

Cartwright, Derrick R. L'Héroïque et le quotidian: les artistes américains, 1820–1920. (exh. cat., Musée d'Art Américain Giverny). Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 2001. Text pp. 10, 24 (checklist); ill. p. 28 (color).

Sassoon, Donald. Mona Lisa: The History of the World's Most Famous Painting. London, England: HarperCollins Publishers, 2001. Fig. 16 (color).

Stratton-Pruitt, Suzanne L., ed. Bartolome Esteban Murillo (1617–1682): Paintings from American Collections. New York: Harry Abrams, Inc., in association with the Kimbell Art Museum, 2002. Text pp. 95–96; ill. p. 96 (black and white).

Sokol, David M. Gallery of the Louvre, Samuel Finley Breese Morse. Collection Cameo sheet, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, October 2002. Ill. (color).

Bourguignon, Katherine M. and Elizabeth Kennedy. An American Point of View: The Daniel J. Terra Collection. Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 2002. Text pp. 22–23, 27, 202; ill. pp. 5 (color), 22 (black & white), 202 (black & white).

Bourguignon, Katherine M. and Elizabeth Kennedy. Un regard transatlantique. La collection d'art américain de Daniel J. Terra. Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 2002. Text pp. 22–23, 27, 202; ill. pp. 5 (color), 22 (black & white), 202 (black & white).

Daniels, Dieter. Kunst als Sendung: Von der Telegrafie zum Internet. Munich, Germany: Verlag C.H. Beck, 2002. Text pp. 32, 34; abb. 2, p.33 (black & white).

Higonett, Patrice. Paris: Capital of the World. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002. Ill. facing p. 254 (color).

Kennedy, Elizabeth. "The Terra Museum of American Art." American Art Review (December 2002): 126–41. Text pp. 129–31; ill. p. 128 (color).

Nickas, Robert. After the Observatory. (exh. cat., Paula Cooper Gallery). New York: Paula Cooper Gallery, 2003. Ill. title page (black & white).

Myers, Kenneth John. Mr. Whistler's Gallery: Pictures at an 1884 Exhibition. (exh. cat., Freer Gallery of Art). Washington, D.C.: Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution in association with Scala Publishers, 2003. Text pp. 2–3; ill. p. 1 (color).

Silverman, Kenneth. Lightning Man: The Accursed Life of Samuel F.B. Morse. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003. Text p. 118; ill. pp. 120–21 (black & white).

Brunet, François. "Samuel Morse, 'père de la photographie américaine.'" Etudes Photographies 15 (November 2004): 4–30.

Art in America (June/July 2006): 74. Ill. (color).

Art News 105:6 (June 2006): 61, Ill. (color).

Kennedy, Elizabeth. American Artists and the Louvre. American Art Review (June 2006): 98–107. Text pp. 99, 105; ill. p. 98 (color).

Kennedy, Elizabeth and Olivier Meslay, eds. American Artists and the Louvre. (exh. cat., Musée du Louvre). Chicago: Terra Foundation for American Art; Paris: Musée du Louvre; Paris: Éditions Hazan; Paris: ADAGP, 2006. Text pp. 64, 66, 68, 70, 83, 94, 96–97; ill. cover (color detail); pp. 64, 83, 94–95 (color); 67, 69 (color details); 97 (black & white line drawing).

Report from Europe: Americans and Paris. The Magazine Antiques 70:20 (August 2006): 36, 38. Ill. p. 38 (color).

Mathieu, Marc-Antoine. Les Sous-sols du Révolu. Paris, France: Musée du Louvre Editions and Futuropolis, 2006. Ill. p. 35.

Johnston, Patricia, ed. Seeing High & Low: Representing Social Conflict in American Visual Culture. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 2006. Ill. cover (color detail).

Carrier, David Museum Skepticism. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2006. Text pp.23, 237; ill. cover (color detail).

Davidson, Susan, ed. Art in the USA: 300 años de innovación. (exh. cat., Guggenheim Museum Bilbao). New York, NY: Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation; Chicago, IL: Terra Foundation for American Art, 2007. (Spanish version). Ill. pp. 82-3 (color).

Miller, Angela et al. American Encounters. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008. Text pp. 193-5; ill. p. 194 (color).

Birnbaum, Paula. Elaine Reichek: Pixels, Bytes, and Stitches. Art Journal 67:2 (Summer 2008): 18-35. Text p. 24; Ill. p. 22 (color).

Daniels, Dieter and Barbara U. Schmidt, eds. Artists as Inventors / Inventors as Artists. Ostfildern, Germany: Hatje Cantz, 2008. Text p. 21; Ill. p. 19 (black & white).

Weinberg, H. Barbara and Carrie Rebora Barratt. “American Stories: Paintings of Everyday Life, 1765-1915.” American Art Review21:5 (October 2009): 70-79. Ill. p. 71 (color).

Weinberg, H. Barbara and Carrie Rebora Barratt, eds. American Stories: Paintings of Everyday Life, 1765–1915. (exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Los Angeles County Museum of Art). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art; New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2009. Text pp. 26, 29, 30, 211 (checklist); ill. pp. 4–5, fig. 22 (color).

Barratt, Carrie Rebora and H. Barbara Weinberg. The Pursuit of Authenticity: American Artists as They Saw Themselves. The Magazine Antiques 176:5 (November 2009): 70–79. Text pp. 73–74, ill p. 74, fig. 4 (color).

Ferber, Linda S. and Barbara Novack, eds. The American Landscapes of Asher B. Durand (1796–1886). (exh. cat. Fundación Juan March, Madrid, Spain). Madrid: Fundación Juan March in association with New York: New York Historical Society, 2010. Text p. 131; ill. p.130, fig. 6.1 (color).

Reed, Richard. The Diastolic Rhythm of the Gallery: Copies, Originals, and Reversed Canvases." The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Art 10:1 (2010, The Conference Issue): 57–77. Text pp. 67–68; p. 66 (black & white).

Gitelman, Lisa. "Modes and Codes: Samuel F. B. Morse and the Question of Electronic Writing." In This is Enlightenment. Eds. Clifford Siskin and William Warner. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010. Text, pp. 120-135.

Colbert, Charles. Haunted Visions: Spiritualism and American Art. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011. Text, pp. 251–252; ill., fig. 69, p. 252 (black & white).

McCullough, David. The Greater Journey: Americans in Paris. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2011. Text, chapter three "Morse at the Louvre" pp. 61–101; ill. fig. 11 (color).

Brownlee, Peter John. A New Look: Samuel F. B. Morse's "Gallery of the Louvre." (exh. brochure, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.). Washington: National Gallery of Art, 2011. Text, pp.1-6; ill. cover, p. 5 (color).

Kennicott, Philip. Samuel Morse’s painting "Gallery of the Louvre" on display at National Gallery. The Washington Post (July 4, 2011): Lifestyle section. Text; ill. (color).

Haag, Sabine, ed. Jan Fabre: Die Jahre der Blauen Stunde–The Years of the Blue Hours. (exh. cat., Kunsthitorisches Museum Wien). Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum; Vienna: Christian Bradstätter Verlag, 2011. Ill. Abb. 2/Ill. 3, p. 131(color) (edition in German and English).

Gallati, Barbara Dayer, ed., Making American Taste: Narrative Art for a New Democracy. (exh. cat., New-York Historical Society). London: Giles, 2011. Text p. 27, 249, ill fig.3 p. 27(black & white).

Wierich, Jochen. Grand Themes: Emanuel Leutze "Washington Crossing the Delaware," and American History Painting. University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2012. Text, p. 31; ill. fig. 7, p. 33 (black & white).

Nys, Liesbet. De Intrede van het Publiek; Museumbezoek in België, 1830–1914. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press, 2012. Text, pp. 84–86; ill. p. 85 (black & white).

Scholz, Dieter, ed.,Marsden Hartley: Die deutschen Bilder / The German Paintings 1913–1915 . (exh. cat. Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin) New York: Distributed Art Publishers, 2014. Ill. 3 p. 196 (color), text p. 196-7.

Rose, Joshua. "Samuel F.B. Morse: Gallery of the Louvre." American Fine Art Magazine, Jan/Feb 2015, 47-48. Text pp. 47-48; ill. p. 49 (color).

Brownlee, Peter John. Samuel F. B. Morse’s Gallery of the Louvre and the Art of Invention. (exh. cat., The Huntington Library, Amon Carter Museum of American Art, Seattle Art Museum, Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Detroit Institute of Arts, Peabody Essex Museum, Reynolda House Museum of American Art, New Britain Museum of American Art, Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts at Standford University). Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for American Art, 2014. Referenced and illustrated throughout the book.

Jordan, Guy. “Review: Samuel F. B. Morse’s Gallery of the Louvre and the Art of Invention.” Panorama: Journal of the Association of Historians of American Art (Fall 2015). Accessed February 26, 2016. http://journalpanorama.org/samuel-f-b-morses-gallery-of-the-louvre-and-the-art-of-invention/. Ill. (color detail).

Gillespie, Sarah Kate. The Early American Daguerreotype: Cross-Currents in Art and Technology. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press in association with the Lemelson Center, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, 2016. Text pp. 20, 22, 44, 52. Ill. p. 21, fig. 1.3 (color).

Susan Rather, The American School: Artists and Status in the Late Colonial and Early National Era. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016. Text pp. 238–40. Ill. p. 239 (color).

Muhlstein, Anka. “Painters and Writers: When Something New Happens.” The New York Review of Books 64, no. 1 (January 19, 2017): 33–35. Text p. 35; ill. p. 33 (color).

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