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Theodore Robinson

Born: 1852, Irasburg, Vermont, United States of America
Died: 1896, New York, New York, United States of America

The Wedding March
1892

Oil on canvas
Image: 22 5/16 x 26 1/2 in. (56.7 x 67.3 cm)
Frame: 31 5/8 x 36 1/8 in. (80.3 x 91.8 cm)
Terra Foundation for American Art, Daniel J. Terra Collection, 1999.127
Signed: Lower right: TH Robinson
Artist Name: []

Interpretation

One of Theodore Robinson’s most important and complex paintings, The Wedding March demonstrates the maturation of his impressionist aesthetic. It commemorates the marriage of Suzanne Hoschedé, a stepdaughter of French painter Claude Monet (1840–1926), to American artist Theodore Butler on July 20, 1892, in the rural village of Giverny, in Normandy, France. Painted in the studio more than two weeks after the event, the work does not portray specifically the individual members of the wedding party: Monet, who probably led the procession with the bride, was not clean-shaven, for example. Robinson’s evocation of glaring sunlight, brilliant color, and figures in motion lends The Wedding March an aura of immediacy, however, while suggesting the joyful nature of the event. Robinson pictures the wedding party striding along the sun-bleached lane from the salmon-colored mairie, or town hall, at upper right, where the civil ceremony took place, toward the unseen church of Sainte Radégonde for the wedding service. The steep diagonals of the composition seem to impel the walkers toward the viewer with an energetic movement underscored by the billowing of the bride’s veil.

Robinson and his friend Butler were among several American painters who were long-term residents of Giverny. They were drawn there in part by the reputation of Monet, a leader of the impressionist movement. Butler and other younger American artists socialized with Monet’s children and stepchildren, while the somewhat older Robinson became a friend of the French painter himself. Indeed, during Robinson’s lengthy sojourns in Giverny between 1887 and 1892, Monet mentored his increasing turn toward impressionism, culminating in such works as The Wedding March, painted only a few months before Robinson’s final departure from France. Robinson’s friendship with Monet was such that, when Monet at first objected to Suzanne’s marriage to Butler, Robinson was enlisted by Suzanne’s mother, Alice, to help reconcile him to the match. The artist’s close relationship to both groom and father-in-law may explain why he chose the wedding as the subject for his only painting of a specific event.

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Provenance

The artist
George Bailey Wheeler, New York, by 1946
Wheeler Estate, 1955
Parke-Bernet Galleries, Inc., New York, New York, October 14–15, 1955, lot 119 (as "Going to Church")
Milch Art Gallery/Babcock Gallery/James Graham & Sons, New York, 1955–58
Mrs. John Barry Ryan, New York, 1958–78
Hirschl & Adler Galleries, Inc., New York, New York, 1978
Daniel J. Terra Collection, Chicago, Illinois, 1978
Terra Foundation for the Arts Collection, Chicago, Illinois, 1999

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Exhibition History

Theodore Robinson 1852–1896, The Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, New York, November 12, 1946–January 5, 1947. [exh. cat.]

Theodore Robinson, American Impressionist, Kennedy Galleries, New York, New York, 1966. [exh. cat.]

19th Century America: Paintings and Sculpture, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, April 16–September 7, 1970. [exh. cat.]

18th and 19th Century American Art from Private Collections, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York (organizer). Venue: Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York, June 27–September 11, 1972. [exh. cat.]

Theodore Robinson, Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, Maryland (organizer). Venues: Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, Maryland, May 1–June 10, 1973; Columbus Gallery of Fine Arts, Columbus, Ohio, July 12–August 26, 1973; Worcester Art Museum, Worcester, Massachusetts, September 19–October 28, 1973; Joslyn Art Museum, Omaha, Nebraska, November 19–December 23, 1973; Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute, Utica, New York, January 20–February 24, 1974. [exh. cat.]

Impressionism, A Centenary Exhibition, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, December 1974–February 1975. [exh. cat.]

American Impressionism, Henry Art Gallery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (organizer). Venues: Henry Art Gallery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, January 3–March 2, 1980; Frederick S. Wight Gallery, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, March 9–May 4, 1980; Terra Museum of American Art, Evanston, Illinois, May 16–June 22, 1980; The Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, Massachusetts, July 1–August 31, 1980. [exh. cat.]

Americans in Brittany and Normandy: 1860–1910, Phoenix Art Museum, Phoenix, Arizona (organizer). Venues: Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, September 24–November 28, 1982; Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, Texas, December 17, 1982–February 6, 1983; Phoenix Art Museum, Phoenix, Arizona, March 19–May 1, 1983; National Museum of American Art, Washington, D.C., June 10–August 14, 1983. [exh. cat.]

Masterworks in American Art from the Daniel J. Terra Collection, Terra Museum of American Art, Evanston, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Evanston, Illinois, April 27–September 12, 1985.

A Proud Heritage: Two Centuries of American Art, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, April 21–June 21, 1987. [exh. cat.]

Selections from the Permanent Collection: Americans at Home and Abroad, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, November 6–29, 1987.

An American Revelation: The Daniel J. Terra Collection, Terra Museum of American Art, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, February 28–October 1, 1988.

Bilder aus der Neuer Welt. Amerikanische Malerie des 18. und 19. Jahrhunderts (Pictures of the New World. American Paintings of the 18th and 19th Centuries), Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Nationalgalerie, Orangerie des Schlosses, Charlottenburg, Berlin, Germany (organizer). Venues: Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Nationalgalerie, Orangerie des Schlosses, Charlottenburg, Berlin, Germany, November 22, 1988–February 5, 1989; Kunsthaus Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, March 3–May 15, 1989. [exh. cat.]

American Painters in France, 1830–1930, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, June 14–September 3, 1989. [exh. cat.]

From Camera to Canvas: Theodore Robinson's French Photographs and Paintings, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, April 24–July 1, 1990.

Collection Cameo, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, July 1991.

Impressions de toujours: les peintres américains en France, 1865–1915 (Lasting Impressions: American Painters in France, 1865–1915), Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France (organizer). Venue: Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France, June 1–November 1, 1992; April 1–October 31, 1993; April 1–October 30, 1994; April 1–October 31, 1995. [exh. cat.]

American Artists and the French Experience, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, April 12–August 27, 1997.

American Artists and the Paris Experience, 1880–1910, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, November 22, 1997–March 8, 1998.

Giverny: une impression américaine (Giverny, An American Impression), Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France (organizer). Venue: Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France, April 1–November 1, 1998.

Première exposition: les carnets de dessins et les photographies de Theodore Robinson (First Exposure: The Sketchbooks and Photographs of Theodore Robinson), Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, October 14–December 31, 2000 (in modified form). [exh. cat.]

Giverny au fil des saisons (Giverny in All Seasons), Musée d'Art Américain, Giverny, France (organizer). Venue: Musée d'Art Américain, Giverny, France, April 1–November 30, 2001.

D'une colonie à une collection: le Musée d'Art Américain Giverny fête ses dix ans (From a Colony to a Collection: Celebrating the Tenth Anniversary of the Musée d'Art Américain Giverny), Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France (organizer). Venue: Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France, March 30–June 16, 2002 (on exhibit extended run: March 30–September 13, 2002).

A Place on the Avenue: Terra Museum of American Art Celebrates 15 Years in Chicago, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, November 16, 2002–February 16, 2003 (on exhibit extended run: November 2, 2002–March 2, 2003).

Collection Cameo, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, June 2003.

Copley to Cassatt: Masterworks from the Terra Collection, New Britain Museum of American Art, New Britain, Connecticut and Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: New Britain Museum of American Art, New Britain, Connecticut, September 5–December 7, 2003.

A Narrative of American Art, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, February 13–October 31, 2004 (on exhibit partial run: February 13–September 29, 2004).

In Monet's Light: Theodore Robinson at Giverny, Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, Maryland (organizer). Venues: Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, Maryland, October 17, 2004–January 9, 2005; Phoenix Art Museum, Phoenix, Arizona, February 4–May 8, 2005; Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford, Connecticut, June 4–September 4, 2005. [exh. cat.]

Americans in Paris 1860–1900. National Gallery, London, England and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachussetts in association with The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York (organizers). Venues: National Gallery, London, England, February 22–May 21, 2006; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts, June 25–September 24, 2006; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, October 16, 2006–January 28, 2007. [exh. cat]

Impressionist Giverny: A Colony of Artists, 1885–1915 (Giverny Impressionniste: une colonie d'artistes, 1885–1915), Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France (organizer). Venues: Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France, April 1–July 1, 2007; San Diego Museum of Art, San Diego, CA, July 21–October 14, 2007. [exh. cat.]

Impressionist Giverny: The Americans, 1885-1915, Selections from the Terra Foundation for American Art, Terra Foundation for American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venues: Florence Griswold Museum of Art, Old Lyme, Connecticut, May 3–July 27, 2008; Albany Institute of History & Art, Albany, New York, August 23, 2008–January 4, 2009.

"American Stories: Paintings of Everyday Life, 1765–1915, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York and Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California (organizers). Venues: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, October 5, 2009–January 24, 2010; Los Angeles County Museum of Art, February 28–May 23, 2010. [exh. cat.]

Monet and the Artists of Giverny: The Beginning of American Impressionism, The Bunkamura Museum of Art, Tokyo, Japan with the Terra Foundation for American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizers). Venues: Kitakyushu Municipal Museum of Art, Kitakyushu, Japan, October 9–November 28, 2010; The Bunkamura Museum of Art, Tokyo, Japan, December 7, 2010–February 17, 2011; The Okayama Prefectural Museum of Art, Okayama, Japan, February 25–April 10, 2011. [exh. cat.]

Art Across America, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas; National Museum of Korea, Seoul, South Korea; Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Terra Foundation for American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizers). Venues: National Museum of Korea, Seoul, February 4– May 12, 2013; Daejeon Museum of Art, Daejeon, South Korea, June 7–September 1, 2013. [exh. cat.]

American Impressionism: a New Vision, 1880–1900 (L'Impressionnisme et les Américains/Impresionismo Americano (French & Spanish titles), Musée des Impressionnismes Giverny, Giverny, France and the Terra Foundation for American Art, Chicago, Illinois in collaboration with the National Galleries of Scotland, Edinburgh, United Kingdom and the Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid, Spain (organizers). Venues: Musée des Impressionnismes Giverny, Giverny, France, March 28–June 29, 2014; Scottish National Gallery, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, July 19–October 19, 2014; Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid, Spain, November 4, 2014–February 1, 2015. [exh. cat.]

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Published References

Robinson, Theodore. Theodore Robinson’s Diary vol. 1 (1852-1896). Entry: August 5th 1892, Giverny.

Baur, John I. H. Theodore Robinson 1853–1896. (exh. cat., The Brooklyn Museum). Brooklyn, New York: The Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, 1946. Text no. 255, pp. 10, 33, 80.

Parke-Bernet Galleries, Inc., New York, New York (Sale 1613, October 14–15, 1955): lot 119. Text p. 22, lot 119 (as Going to Church).

Naylor, Maria. Theodore Robinson, American Impressionist (1852–1896). (exh. cat., Kennedy Galleries). New York: Kennedy Galleries, 1966. Text p. 14.

Baur John H. Three Nineteenth Century American Painters: John Quidor, Eastman Johnson, Theodore Robinson. Brooklyn, New York: The Brooklyn Museum of Art, 1969. Text pp. 33, 80 (checklist), cat. no. 255.

Three Nineteenth Century American Painters: John Quidor, Eastman Johnson, Theodore Robinson. Brooklyn, New York: The Brooklyn Museum of Art, 1969. Text p. 80, no. 255.

19th-Century American Paintings and Sculpture: An Exhibition in Celebration of the Hundredth Anniversary of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. (exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1970. Ill. no. 187 (black & white).

Baur John H, Hills Patricia. 18th- and 19th- Century American Art from Private Collections. (exh. cat., Whitney Museum of American Art). New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1972. Text, cat. no. 61 (checklist).

Johnston, Sona. Theodore Robinson 1852–1896. (exh. cat., Baltimore Museum of Art). Baltimore, Maryland: Baltimore Museum of Art, 1973. Text pp. 42 (checklist, cat. no. 41), 91; ill. p. 42, no. 41 (black & white).

Clark, Eliot. Theodore Robinson: His Life and Art. Chicago, Illinois: R. H. Love Galleries, 1979. Ill. pl. 2 (color).

Gerdts, William H. American Impressionism. (exh. cat., Henry Art Gallery). Seattle, Washington: Henry Art Gallery, University of Washington, 1980. Text pp. 54, 137 (checklist); ill. p. 8 (color).

Sellin, David. Americans in Brittany and Normandy. (exh. cat., Phoenix Art Museum). Phoenix, Arizona: Phoenix Art Museum, 1982. Text p. 201; ill. front cover (color), p. 204, no. 88 (color).

Adams, Henry. "Private Collector to Public Champion." Portfolio 5 (January/February 1983): 52. Text p. 52.

The Journal of the American Medical Association (June 17, 1983): cover. Ill. cover (color).

Hemphill, Christopher. "Daniel Terra and His Museum." Town & Country (February 1984): 195. Text p. 195.

Sokol, David M. "The Terra Museum of American Art, Evanston, Illinois." The Magazine Antiques 126, no. 5 (November 1984): 1156–69. Ill. p. 1163, pl. XVIII (color).

Gerdts, William H. American Impressionism. New York: Abbeville Press, 1984. Text p. 73; ill. p. 56, pl. 41 (color).

Atkinson, D. Scott et al. A Proud Heritage: Two Centuries of American Art. Edited by Terry A. Neff. (exh. cat., Terra Museum of American Art). Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 1987. Ill. p. 188, pl. T-79 (color).

Gaehtgnes, Thomas W., ed. Bilder aus der Neuen Welt. Amerikanische Malerei des 18. Und 19. Jahrhunderts. (exh. cat., Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Nationalgalerie, Orangerie des Schlosses Charlottenburg, Berlin). Muenchen, Germany: Prestel Verlag, 1988. Text p. 84; ill. p. 84 (color).

Shelby, Carole. American Painters in France, 1830–1930. (exh. cat. Terra Museum of American Art). Chicago: Terra Museum of American Art, 1989. Cat. no. 21.

The Wedding March, Theodore Robinson. Collection Cameo sheet, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, July 1991. Ill. (black & white).

Johnson, Meredith. Lovers in Art. New York: Moore & Moore Publishing, 1991. Text p. 109; ill. pp. 5, 94, 109 (color).

Montgomery, Elizabeth Miles. American Impressionists. New York: Crescent Books, 1991. Ill. p. 23 (color).

De Vries-Evans, Susanna. The Impressionist Revealed: Masterpieces from Private Collections. Auckland, New Zealand: David Bateman Ltd., 1992. Ill. p 56 (color).

Gerdts, William H. et al. Lasting Impressions: American Painters in France, 1865–1915. (exh. cat., Musée d'Art Américain Giverny). Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 1992. Text pp. 12, 54, 135, 139, 172; ill. p. 138, pl. 6 (color), jacket (color).

Gerdts, William H. et al. Impressions de toujours: les peintres américains en France, 1865–1915. (exh. cat., Musée d'Art Américain Giverny). Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 1992. Text pp. 12, 54, 135, 139, 172; ill. p. 138, pl. 6 (color), jacket (color).

Martin, Jennifer et. al. L'art des États-Unis. Paris, France: Citadelles & Mazenod, 1992. Ill. p. 549 (black & white).

Gerdts, William H. Monet's Giverny: An Impressionist Colony. New York: Abbeville Press, 1993. Text pp. 54, 125–26; ill. p. 114, pl. 101 (color detail), p. 127, pl. 110 (color).

Gomes, Rosalie. Impressions of Giverny: A Painter's Paradise 1883–1914. San Francisco, California: Pomegranate Artbooks, 1995. Text pp. 66, 68, 114; ill. p. 67, pl. 44 (color).

Shipp, Steve. American Art Colonies 1850–1930. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1996. Text p. 22.

Regard sur cinq années d'expositions (Five years of Exhibitions at a Glance). Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 1997. Text p. 43; ill. p. 40 (color).

Gerdts, William H. American Impressionism. Second edition. New York: Abbeville Press, 2001. Text p. 73; ill. p. 56, pl. 41 (color).

Kilmer, Nicholas, et al. Frederick Carl Frieseke: The Evolution of an American Impressionist. (exh. cat., Telfair Museum of Art). Savannah, Georgia: Telfair Museum of Art in association with Princeton University Press, 2001. Ill. p. 82 (black & white).

Mancoff, Debra N. Monet's Garden in Art. London, England: Frances Lincoln Limited, 2001. Ill. pp. 77 (color), 89 (color).

Benesch, Evelyn and Ingried Brugger. Impressionismus: Amerika-Frankreich-Russland. (exh. cat., Kunstforum Wien). Vienna, Austria: Kunstforum Wien, 2002. Text pp. 19–20; ill. p. 19, pl. 11 (color).

Bourguignon, Katherine M. and Elizabeth Kennedy. An American Point of View: The Daniel J. Terra Collection. Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 2002. Text pp. 21, 27, 120, 203–204; ill. pp. 12 (color), 121 (color), 203 (black & white).

Bourguignon, Katherine M. and Elizabeth Kennedy. Un regard transatlantique. La collection d'art américain de Daniel J. Terra. Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 2002. Text pp. 21, 27, 120, 203–204; ill. pp. 12 (color), 121 (color), 203 (black & white).

Kennedy, Elizabeth. "The Terra Museum of American Art." American Art Review (December 2002): 126–41. Text p. 129; ill. p. 136 (color).

Mancoff, Debra. The Wedding March, Theodore Robinson. Collection Cameo sheet, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, June 2003. Ill. (color).

Johnston, Sona. In Monet's Light: Theodore Robinson at Giverny. (exh. cat., The Baltimore Museum of Art). Baltimore, Maryland: The Baltimore Museum of Art, 2004. Text pp. 91, 140, no. 34; ill. p. 141, no. 34 (color).

Johnston, Sona. "Theodore Robinson at Giverny." American Art Review 16, no. 5 (September–October 2004): 124–33, 175. Ill. p. 127 (color).

McNatt, Glenn. “Seeing the Light.” The Sun (October 16, 2004). Ill. front page (color).

May, Stephen. “In Monet’s Light: Theodore Robinson at Giverny.” Antiques and the Arts Weekly (October 29, 2004): front page, pp. 40–41. Text p. 41; ill. p.41 (black & white).

Johnston, Sona. “The Diary of Theodore Robinson, an American Impressionist.” The Magazine Antiques (November 2004): 128–138. Text p. 132; ill. p. 129 (black & white).

May, Stephen. "Lessons Learned: Monet's Influence on Theodore Robinson." American Artist (April 2006): 48–53. Ill. p. 53.

Adler, Kathleen et al. Americans in Paris, 1860–1900. (exh. cat. National Gallery of Art) London: National Gallery Company Limited, 2006. Text pp. 145, 254; ill. p. 147, cat. 76 (color), p. 254 (color).

Bourguignon, Katherine M. et al. Impressionist Giverny: A Colony of Artists, 1885–1915. (exh. cat. Musée d'Art Américain Giverny). Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for American Art, 2007. Text pp. 64, 132, 210 (checklist); ill. p. 123 (color).

Bourguignon, Katherine M. et al. Giverny Impressionniste: une colonie d’artistes, 1885–1915. (exh. cat. Musée d'Art Américain Giverny). Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for American Art, 2007. Text pp. 64, 132, 210 (checklist); cat. p. 123 (color).

Goldin, Marco ed. America! Storie di pittura dal Nuovo Mondo. (exh. cat., Brescia, Museo di Santa Giulia). Treviso, Italy: Linea d'ombra Libri, 2007. Text p. 335; ill. p. 335 (black & white).

Goldin, Marco ed. America! Storie di pittura dal Nuovo Mondo (English Texts). (exh. cat., Brescia, Museo di Santa Giulia). Treviso, Italy: Linea d'ombra Libri, 2007. Text p. 137.

Bourguignon, Katherine M. "Impressionist Giverny: American Painters in France" American Art Review 20, no. 3 (June 2008): 100-113. Ill. p.101 (color).

Genocchio, Benjamin. “In the Spirit of Giverny, Americans in France.” New York Times (June 29, 2008). Accessed November 15, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/29/nyregion/nyregionspecial2/29artsct.html. Text.

Weinberg, H. Barbara and Carrie Rebora Barratt, eds. American Stories: Paintings of Everyday Life, 1765–1915. (exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Los Angeles County Museum of Art). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art; New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2009. Text pp. 126–27, 212 (checklist); ill. p. 126, fig. 117 (color).

Bourguignon, Katherine M., Shunsuke Kijima and Sanjiro Minamikawa. Monet and the Artists of Giverny: The Beginning of American Impressionism. (exh. cat. Kitakyushu Municipal Museum of Art, The Bunkamura Museum of Art, Tokyo, and The Okayama Prefectural Museum of Art). Fukuoka, Japan: The Nishinippon Shimbun, 2010. Text cat. no. 60, pp. 109 (in Japanese), 187 (in English); ill. p. 109 (color).

Art Across America. (exh. cat., National Museum of Korea, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Philadelphia Museum of Art and the Terra Foundation for American Art). Seoul, South Korea: National Museum of Korea, 2013. Text pp. 39, 225; ill. p. 39, fig. 39 (color), p. 225 (color).

Bourguignon, Katherine M. American Impressionism: A New Vision 1880–1900. (exh. cat., Musée des Impressionnismes Giverny, National Galleries of Scotland, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza). Giverny, France: Musée des Impressionnismes Giverny, 2014. Text pp. 30, 40; ill. p. 81 (color).

Bourguignon, Katherine M. L’impressionisme et les américains, 1880–1900. (exh. cat., Musée des Impressionnismes Giverny, National Galleries of Scotland, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza). Giverny, France: Musée des Impressionnismes Giverny, 2014. Text pp. 30, 40; ill. p. 81 (color).

Bourguignon, Katherine M. Impresionismo Americano. (exh. cat., Musée des Impressionnismes Giverny, National Galleries of Scotland, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza). Madrid: Museo Thyssen Bornemisza, 2014. Text p. 30, 40; ill. p. 81 (color).

Collet, Valérie. "L’impressionnisme, une passion américaine." Valeurs Actuelles (April 28, 2014). Accessed November 9, 2016. < a href="http://www.valeursactuelles.com/culture/limpressionnisme-une-passion-americaine-45086" target="_blank">http://www.valeursactuelles.com/culture/limpressionnisme-une-passion-americaine-45086. Text.

Cumming Laura, “American Impressionism: Review–Monet’s fans from across the (lily) pond.” The Guardian (August 17, 2014) Accessed November 15, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/stage/2014/aug/17/american-impressionism-scottish-gallery-modern-art-observer-review. Text.

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