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Edward Hopper

Born: 1882, Nyack, New York, United States of America
Died: 1967, New York, New York, United States of America

Dawn in Pennsylvania
1942

Oil on canvas
Image: 24 3/8 x 44 1/4 in. (61.9 x 112.4 cm)
Frame: 32 1/4 x 52 x 1 7/8 in. (81.9 x 132.1 x 4.8 cm)
Terra Foundation for American Art, Daniel J. Terra Collection, 1999.77
Signed: Lower right: EDWARD HOPPER
Artist Name: []

Interpretation

Glimpsed from across a railroad track, a deserted station platform is illuminated by raking light in Edward Hopper’s haunting Dawn in Pennsylvania. The view is bounded by quiet factory buildings framed by the roof of the open platform and several more rust-tinted tracks. The static forms of the station structures and the industrial buildings are offset by the bulk of a railroad car on the left and an empty cart on the platform on the right, but these too are immobile. The eerie effect of this lonely scene is compounded by its conflicting light sources: the platform is flooded from the right with what appears to be morning sunshine, yet on the left the dark sky of lingering nighttime lightens as if with coming dawn.

Since the introduction of train travel in the nineteenth century the railroad had symbolized modernity. In Hopper’s work it often signals the rootlessness and anonymity of modern life. Here, the deliberate absence of any hint of forward momentum of the two vehicles, the train and the wheeled cart, creates a disquieting ambiguity and a hint of suspense. The station as a site of transit, dawn as a time of transition, and the wide vista all suggest that both train and cart, partly out of the frame, could lurch startlingly into motion. The slightly menacing juxtaposition of silent stillness and the expectation of noisy activity that infuses Dawn in Pennsylvania also characterizes another Hopper image, his etching The Railroad (TF 1996.23).

Hopper painted Dawn in Pennsylvania just a few months after completing his well-known Nighthawks (1942; The Art Institute of Chicago). Both images demonstrate the artist’s almost obsessive interest in compositions showing partly enclosed spaces. Both also seem removed from current events dominated by the United States' precipitous entrance into World War II. In Dawn in Pennsylvania, the broad horizontal format, the dramatic contrasts of light and shadow, and the illusionistic framing of a central depth bounded by flat facades all evoke a theatrical stage and a dramatic narrative poised to begin.

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Provenance

The artist
Frank K. M. Rehn Gallery, New York, New York
Otto L. Spaeth, Dayton, Ohio, 1942
Lawrence Fleischman, New York, New York, 1963
Frank K. M. Rehn Gallery, New York, New York, 1963
Dr. and Mrs. James Hustead Semans, Durham, North Carolina
Berry-Hill Galleries, Inc., New York, New York (dealer), Daniel J. Terra Collection, Chicago, Illinois, 1986
Terra Foundation for the Arts Collection, Chicago, Illinois, 1999

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Exhibition History

1942–1943 Annual Exhibition of Contemporary American Art: Sculptures, Paintings, Watercolors, Drawings and Prints, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York (organizer). Venue: Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York, November 24, 1942–January 6, 1943. [exh. cat.]

The Fifty-fourth Annual Exhibition of American Paintings and Sculpture, The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, October 28–December 12, 1943, as Dawn over Pennsylvania. [exh. cat.]

Robert Henri and Five of His Pupils, The Century Association, New York, New York (organizer). Venue: The Century Association, New York, New York, April 5–June 1, 1946. [exh. cat.]

Paintings by Edward Hopper, Frank K. M. Rehn Gallery, New York, New York (organizer). Venue: Frank K. M. Rehn Gallery, New York, New York, January 5–31, 1948.

Milestones of American Painting in Our Century, Institute of Modern Art, Boston, Massachusetts (organizer). Venue: Institute of Modern Art, Boston, Massachusetts, January 20–March 1, 1949.

Edward Hopper Retrospective Exhibition, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York (organizer). Venues: Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York, February 11–March 26, 1950; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts, April 13–May 14, 1950; Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, Michigan, June 4–July 2, 1950. [exh. cat.]

I Bienal do Museu de Arte Moderna, Museu de Arte Moderna, São Paulo, Brazil (organizer). Venue: Museu de Arte Moderna, São Paulo, Brazil, October–December 1951. [exh. cat.]

The Artist's Vision, Des Moines Art Center, Des Moines, Iowa (organizer). Venue: Des Moines Art Center, Des Moines, Iowa, February 27–March 23, 1952. [exh. cat.]

XXVI Venice Biennial, The American Pavilion, Venice, Italy, June 14–October 19, 1952. [exh. cat.]

2nd International Contemporary Art Exhibition, All-India Fine Arts & Crafts Society, New Delhi, India (organizer). Venue: All-India Fine Arts & Crafts Society, New Delhi, India, May 5, 1953 (opening date). [exh. cat.]

Exhibition of Work by Newly Elected Members, Recipients of Honors, and Childe Hassam Fund Purchases, The American Academy of Arts and Letters and the National Institute of Arts and Letters, New York, May 26–June 26, 1955. [exh. cat.]

The Museum and Its Friends: Eighteen Living American Artists Selected by the Friends of the Whitney Museum, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York, March 5–April 12, 1959. [exh. cat.]

Edward Hopper: Oils, Watercolors, Prints, The Edward W. Root Art Center, Hamilton College, Clinton, New York, May 10–June 7, 1964. [exh. cat.]

Edward Hopper, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York (organizer). Venues: Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York, September 29–November 29, 1964; The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, December 18, 1964-January 31, 1965; Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, Michigan, February 18–March 21, 1965; City Art Museum of St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, April 7–May 9, 1965. [exh. cat.]

São Paulo 9 (IX Biennial of the Museum of Modern Art), Museum of Modern Art, São Paulo, Brazil, September 22, 1967–January 8, 1968. [exh. cat.]

European and American Art from Princeton Alumni Collections, The Art Museum, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, May 7–June 11, 1972. [exh. cat.]

Edward Hopper: Art and Artist, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York (organizer). Venues: Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York, September 16, 1980–January 18, 1981; Hayward Gallery, London, England, February 11–March 29, 1981; Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, April 22–June 17, 1981; Stadtische Kunsthalle, Düsseldorf, Germany, July 10–September 6, 1981; The Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois, October 3–November 29, 1981; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, California, December 16, 1981–February 10, 1982. [exh. cat.]

Solitude-Inner Visions in American Art, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, September 25–December 30, 1982. [exh. cat.]

A Proud Heritage: Two Centuries of American Art, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, April 21–June 21, 1987. [exh. cat.]

Collection Cameo, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, June 1988.

Edward Hopper, Musée Cantini, Marseilles, France and Fundación Juan March, Madrid, Spain (organizer). Venues: Musée Cantini, Marseilles, France, June 23–September 24, 1989; Fundación Juan March, Madrid, Spain, October 13, 1989–January 4, 1990. [exh. cat.]

Edward Hopper - Die Wahrheit des Sichtbaren/Edward Hopper und die Fotografie im 20. Jahrhundertz (The Truth of the Real/Edward Hopper and Photography in the Twentieth Century), Museum Folkwang, Essen, Germany (organizer). Venue: Museum Folkwang, Essen, Germany, June 28–September 27, 1992. [exh. cat.]

Edward Hopper, Schirn Kunsthalle, Frankfurt, Germany and Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, Belgium (organizer). Venues: Schirn Kunsthalle, Frankfurt, Germany, December 4, 1992–February 14, 1993; Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, Belgium, February 26–May 23, 1993. [exh. cat.]

Fragen an vier Bilder (Questions about Four Paintings), Westfälischer Kunstverein, Münster, Germany (organizer). Venue: Westfälischer Kunstverein, Münster, Germany, June 4–July 11, 1993. [exh. cat.]

Edward Hopper and the American Imagination, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York (organizer). Venue: Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York, June 21–October 15, 1995. [exh. cat.]

Visions of a Nation: Exploring Identity through American Art, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, August 10, 1995–January 12, 1996.

Selected Works from the Collections: Two Hundred Years of American Art, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, April 12–August 27, 1997.

Figures and Forms: Selections from the Terra Foundation for the Arts, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, May 9–July 9, 2000.

L'Amérique et les modernes, 1900–1950 (American Moderns, 1900–1950), Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France (organizer). Venue: Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France, July 25–October 31, 2000. [exh. cat.]

Selections from the Permanent Collection: Two Centuries of American Art, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, March 10–July 1, 2001.

Selections from the Permanent Collection: American Moderns, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, July 14–October 7, 2001.

Collection Cameo, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, January 2002.

American Classics: Selections from the Terra Foundation for the Arts, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, January 26–March 4, 2002.

D'une colonie à une collection: le Musée d'Art Américain Giverny fête ses dix ans (From a Colony to a Collection: Celebrating the Tenth Anniversary of the Musée d'Art Américain Giverny), Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France (organizer). Venue: Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France, March 30–June 16, 2002.

A Place on the Avenue: Terra Museum of American Art Celebrates 15 Years in Chicago, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, November 16, 2002–February 16, 2003 (on exhibit extended run: November 2, 2002–March 2, 2003).

American Classics from the Collection, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, May 14–June 15, 2003.

Copley to Cassatt: Masterworks from the Terra Collection, New Britain Museum of American Art, New Britain, Connecticut, and Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: New Britain Museum of American Art, New Britain, Connecticut, September 5–December 7, 2003.

Edward Hopper, Tate Modern, London, England (organizer). Venues: Tate Modern, London, England, May 27–September 5, 2004; Museum Ludwig, Cologne, Germany, October 9, 2004–January 9, 2005. [exh. cat.]

Expanded Galleries of American Art with Loans from the Terra Foundation for American Art Collection, The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, April 15, 2005–May 16, 2006.

Les artistes américaines et le Louvre (American Artists andf the Louvre), Musée du Louvre, Paris, France and Terra Foundation for American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizers). Venue: Musée du Louvre, Paris, France, June 14–September 18, 2006. [exh. cat.]

Art in America: 300 Years of Innovation,Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, New York, NY and Terra Foundation for American Art, Chicago, IL (organizers). Venues: National Museum of China, Beijing, China, February 9-April 5, 2007; Shanghai Museum, Shanghai, China, April 30-June 30, 2007; Shanghai Museum of Contemporary Art, Shanghai, China, April 30-June 30, 2007. (Shanghai presentations ran concurrently); The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow, Russia, July 23–September 9, 2007; Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, Bilbao, Spain, October 15, 2007–April 27, 2008 (exhibited in Beijing and Shanghai; exhibited in Bilbao). [exh. cat.]

Western Motel. Edward Hopper and Contemporary Art, Kunsthalle Wien, Vienna, Austria (organizer). Venue: Kunsthalle Wien, Vienna, Austria, October 2, 2008–February 15, 2009. [exh. cat.]

Edward Hopper, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York and Artemisia Group, Milan Italy (organizers). Venues: Palazzo Reale, Milan, Italy, October 15, 2009–January 24, 2010; Fondazione Roma Museo, Rome, Italy, February 23–June 23, 2010; Fondation de l'Hermitage, Lausanne, Switzerland, June 25–October 17, 2010. [exh. cat.]

To Make a World: George Ault and 1940s America. Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C. (organizer). Venues: Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C., March 11–September 5, 2011; Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri, October 8–December 31, 2011; Georgia Museum of Art at University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, February 18–April 16, 2012. [exh. cat.]

Edward Hopper, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid, Spain and Galeries Nationales, Grand Palais, Paris, France (organizers). Venues: Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid, Spain, June 12–September 16, 2012; Galeries nationales, Grand Palais, Paris, France, October 5, 2012–January 28, 2013. [exh cat.]

Hopper Drawing, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York (organizer); Venues: Whitney Museum of American Art, May 23–October 6, 2014; Hopper Drawing: A Painter's Process, Dallas Museum of Art, Dallas, Texas, November 17, 2013–February 16, 2014; Hopper Drawing: A Painter's Process, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, March 15–June 20, 2014 (exhibited in Dallas and Minneapolis) [exh. cat.].

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Published References

1942–1943 Annual Exhibition of Contemporary American Art: Sculptures, Paintings, Watercolors, Drawings, and Prints. (exh. cat., Whitney Museum of American Art). New York, New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1943. Text cat. no. 37 (checklist).

Sweet, Frederick A. Fifty-Fourth Annual Exhibition of American Paintings and Sculpture. (exh. cat., The Art Institute of Chicago). Chicago, IL: The Art Institute of Chicago, 1943. Text foreword; ill. pl. II (black & white, as Dawn over Pennsylvania).

Hopper, Edward. Edward Hopper. New York: American Artists Group, Inc., 1945. Ill.

Robert Henri & Five of His Pupils. (exh. cat., The Century Association). New York: The Century Association, 1946. Text, cat. no. 20 (checklist); ill. cat. no. 20.

Shepherd, Richard. "Henri and His Boys." Art News 45, no. 3 (May 1946): 42–43. Text p. 43; ill. p. 43.

Reed, Judith Kaye. "The Enduring Realism of Edward Hopper." The Art Digest 22 (January 15, 1948): 12. Text p. 12; ill. p. 12.

Frankfurter, Alfred M. "Boston Adventures and the New York Look." Art News 42, no. 9 (January 1949): 30, 35. Ill. p. 35.

Goodrich, Lloyd. Edward Hopper. London, England: Penguin Books, Limited, 1949. Text p. 15, no. 27; ill. pl. 27.

Wight, Frederick S. Milestones of American Painting in Our Century. New York: Chanticleer Press, 1949. Text pp. 30, cat. no. 17 (checklist), ill. p. 67, cat. no. 17.

Burchfield, Charles. "Hopper: Career of Silent Poetry." Art News 69, no. 1 (March 1950): 14–17, 62-64. Text p. 17.

Goodrich, Lloyd. Edward Hopper Retrospective Exhibition. (exh. cat., Whitney Museum of American Art). New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1950. Text pp. 15, pl. 27 (list of plates), 56, cat. no. 60 (checklist); ill. pl. 27.

I Bienal do Museu de Arte Moderna de Sao Paulo. (exh. cat., Museu de Arte Moderna de Sao Paulo). Sao Paulo, Brazil: Museu de Arte Moderna, 1951. Text p. 78, cat. no. 30 (checklist).

The Artist's Vision. (exh. cat., Des Moines Art Center). Des Moines, Iowa: Des Moines Art Center, 1952. Text cat. no. 40 (checklist).

Burrey, Suzanne. "Edward Hopper: The Emptying Spaces." The Arts Digest 29 (April 1955): 8–10.

Smith, Jacob Getlar. "Edward Hopper." American Artist 20, no. 1 (January 1956): 22-27. Text pp. 25–26; ill. p. 26 (black & white).

O'Doherty, Brian. "Portrait: Edward Hopper." Art in America 52, no. 6 (December 1964): 68–88. Ill. p. 79.

Goodrich, Lloyd. Edward Hopper. (exh. cat., Whitney Museum of American Art). New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1964. Text, cat. no. 42 (checklist); ill. p. 41, no. 42.

Goodrich, Lloyd. Edward Hopper. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 1970. Ill. p. 259 (color).

Barr, Alfred H. Jr. European and American Art from Princeton Alumni Collections. (exh. cat., The Art Museum, Princeton Univeristy). Princeton, New Jersey: The Art Museum, Princeton University, 1972. Ill. p. 132, cat. no. 110 (black & white).

Reiss, James. “Waiting for Edward Hopper.” Southwest Review 58, no. 1 (Winter 1973), pp. vii, 84-87. Text p. 86.

Goodrich, Lloyd. Edward Hopper. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1976. Ill. p. 126 (color).

Forgery, Benjamin. "Hopper's America." Portfolio 2, no. 4 (September/October 1980): 46–53. Text p. 53.

Levin, Gail. Edward Hopper: The Art and the Artist. (exh. cat., Whitney Museum of American Art). New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company in association with the Whitney Museum of American Art, 1980. Text p. 47; ill. p. 211, pl. 281 (color).

The World of Edward Hopper. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1982. Text pp. 13, 17.

Pellegrini, Giorgio. "Edward Hopper tra realismo e metafisica." Bollettino D'Arte 67 (April 1982): 148–58. Text p. 154; ill. p. 151, fig. 11.

Dissent: The Issue of Modern Art in Boston. Boston, Massachusetts: The Institute of Contemporary Art, 1985. Ill. p. 60 (illustration of exhibition installation).

Mourey, Jean-Pierre. “Parcours et figures du paysage urbain.” Littérature 61 (February 1986): 85–97. Text p. 92.

Atkinson, D. Scott et al. A Proud Heritage: Two Centuries of American Art. Edited by Terry A. Neff. (exh. cat., Terra Museum of American Art). Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 1987. Ill. p. 278, pl. T-169 (color).

Dawn in Pennsylvania, Edward Hopper. Collection Cameo sheet, Terra Museum of Art, Chicago, Illinois, June 1988. Ill. (black & white).

The Washington Post Magazine (July 3, 1988): 1. Ill. p. 1 (color detail).

Cendo, Nicolas et al. Edward Hopper. (exh. cat., Musée Cantini). Marseilles, France: Musée Cantini and Editions Adam Biro, 1989. Ill. p. 93 (color).

Levin, Gail. Edward Hopper. (exh. cat., Fundación Juan March). Madrid, Spain: Fundación Juan March, 1989. Ill. p. 49, no. 22 (color).

Venezia, Mike. Edward Hopper (Getting to Know the World's Greatest Artists). Chicago, Illinois: Children's Press, 1990. Ill. p. 31 (color).

Költzsch, Georg-W. and Heinz Liesbrock, et al. Edward Hopper und die Fotografie: die Wahrheit des Sichtbaren. (exh. cat., Museum Folkwang Essen). Essen, Germany: Museum Folkwang, 1992. Text p. 188 (checklist); ill. p. 52 (color).

Debecque-Michel, Laurence. Hopper. Paris: Hazan, 1992. Text cat. no. 32 ; ill. cat. no. 32 (black & white).

Larsen, Susan C. et al. Edward Hopper, 1882–1967. (exh. cat., Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt). Frankfurt, Germany: Schirn Kunsthalle, 1992. (German edition). Ill. p. 97, no. 69 (color).

Larsen, Susan C. et al. Edward Hopper, 1882–1967. (exh. cat., Société des Expositions du Palais des Beaux Arts). Brussels, Belgium: Société des Expositions du Palais des Beaux-Arts in association with the Whitney Museum of American Art, 1993. (French edition). Ill. p. 97, no. 69 (color).

Liesbrock, Heinz. Fragen an vier Bilder. (exh. cat., Westfälischer Kunstverein Münster). Münster, Germany: Westfälischer Kunstverein Münster, 1993. Text, pp. 38–65; ill. pp. 10–11 (color).

Strand, Mark. Hopper. Hopewell, New Jersey: Ecco Press, 1993. Text pp. 7–8; ill. p. 7 (black & white).

Kranzfelder, Ivo. Edward Hopper, 1882–1967: Vision der Wirklichkeit. Köln, Germany: Benedikt Taschen, 1994. Ill. p. 120 (color).

Kranzfelder, Ivo. Edward Hopper, 1882–1967: Vision de la réalité. Köln, Germany: Benedikt Taschen, 1994. Ill. p. 120 (color).

Levin, Gail. Edward Hopper: An Intimate Biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995. Text pp. 353, 400.

Levin, Gail. Edward Hopper: A Catalogue Raisonné. 4 vols. New York: W. W. Norton & Company in association with the Whitney Museum of American Art, 1995. Vol. 3. Text p. 294, cat. no. O-323; ill. p. 295 (color).

New History of World Art. Vol. 26. Tokyo, Japan: Shogakukan Inc., 1995. Ill. p. 10, fig. 3 (black & white).

Lyons, Deborah and Adam D. Weinberg. Edward Hopper and the American Imagination. (exh. cat., Whitney Museum of American Art). New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company in association with the Whitney Museum of American Art, 1995. Ill. pl. 13 (color).

Schmied, Wieland. Edward Hopper: Portraits of America. New York: Prestel, 1995. Ill. p. 112 (color).

Levin, Gail. “Edward Hopper’s Nighthawks: Surrealism and the War.” Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies 22, no. 2, Mary Reynolds and the Spirit of Surrealism (1996): 180–195. Text p. 189.

Fresnault-Deruelle Jean-Pierre. “The Shop Around the Corner: une lecture de Nighthawks d’Edward Hopper” in Chénetier, Marc, ed. Américônes: Etudes sur l’image aux États-Unis. Fontenay aux-Roses- Saint Cloud, France: Ens editions, 1997. Text p. 55.

Cartwright, Derrick R. and Paul J. Karlstrom. American Moderns, 1900–1950. (exh. cat., Musée d'Art Américain Giverny). Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 2000. Text p. 45; ill. pp. 44–45, pl. 17 (color).

Cartwright, Derrick R. and Paul J. Karlstrom. L'Amérique et les modernes, 1900–1950. (exh. cat., Musée d'Art Américain Giverny). Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 2000. Text p. 45; ill. pp. 44–45, pl. 17 (color).

Townsend, Ludington. A Modern Mosaic: Art and Modernism in the United States. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2000. Text. p. 347 (as Sunday, Dawn in Pennsylvania).

Strand, Mark. Hopper. New York, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001. Text pp. v, 7–10; ill. p. 7 (black & white).

Tallack, Douglas. “Seeing out the Century.” Journal of American Studies 35, no. 1, part 1: "Power in America: Nationhood and Ethnicity" (April 2001): 127-–31. Text p. 130.

Bourguignon, Katherine M. and Elizabeth Kennedy. An American Point of View: The Daniel J. Terra Collection. Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 2002. Text pp. 186, 199; ill. pp. 13 (color), 187 (color), 199 (black & white).

Bourguignon, Katherine M. and Elizabeth Kennedy. Un regard transatlantique. La collection d'art américain de Daniel J. Terra. Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 2002. Text pp. 186, 199; ill. pp. 13 (color), 187 (color), 199 (black & white).

Wisotzki, Paula. Dawn in Pennsylvania, Edward Hopper. Collection Cameo sheet, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, January 2002. Ill. (color).

Kennedy, Elizabeth. "The Terra Museum of American Art." American Art Review 14, no. 6 (December 2002): 126–41. Text p. 139 ; ill. p. 138 (color).

Strand, Mark. Hopper: Un poeta legge un pittore. Rome, Italy: Donzelli editore, 2003. Text pp. v, 11, 13; ill. p. 10 (color).

Brettell, Richard R. and Eric Darragon. Edward Hopper. Les années parisiennes 1906–1910. (exh. cat., Musée d'Art Américain Giverny). Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 2004. Text p. 20; ill. p. 23 (color).

Wagstaff, Sheena, ed. Edward Hopper. (exh. cat., Tate Modern). London, England: Tate Publishing, 2004. Text pp. 42–43, 247 (checklist); ill. pp. 182–83 (color).

Wagstaff, Sheena, ed. Edward Hopper. (exh. cat. Museum Ludwig). Stuttggart, Germany: Hatje Cantz, 2004. Text pp. 43, 249 (checklist); ill. pp. 182-83 (color).

James, Merlin. “Edward Hopper: London.” The Burlington Magazine 146, no. 1218 (Sept. 2004): 632–633. Text p. 632.

Kennedy, Elizabeth and Olivier Meslay, eds. American Artists and the Louvre. (exh. cat., Musée du Louvre). Chicago: Terra Foundation for American Art; Paris: Musée du Louvre Editions, 2006. Text p. 142, cat. no. 26; ill. pp. 142–143 (color).

Kennedy, Elizabeth. "American Artists and the Louvre." American Art Review 18, no. 3 (June 2006): 98–107. Text p. 107; ill. p. 107 (color).

Davidson, Susan, ed. Art in America: 300 Years of Innovation. (exh. cat., National Museum of China, Beijing; Shanghai Museum). New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation; Chicago: Terra Foundation for American Art, 2007. Ill. p. 227 (color).

Davidson, Susan, ed. Art in America: 300 Years of Innovation. (exh. cat., National Museum of China, Beijing; Shanghai Museum). New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation; Chicago: Terra Foundation for American Art, 2007. (Chinese edition). Ill. p. 227 (color).

Davidson, Susan, ed. Art in the USA: 300 años de innovación. (exh. cat., Guggenheim Museum Bilbao). New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation; Chicago: Terra Foundation for American Art, 2007. Ill. p. 176 (color).

Barter, Judith A., et. al. Edward Hopper. (exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Boston). Boston, Massachusetts, 2007. Text pp. 211–212; ill. p. 213, fig. 84 (color).

Matt, Gerald, ed. Western Motel. Edward Hopper and Contemporary Art. (exh. cat.). Vienna, Austria: Kunsthalle Wien and Gerald Matt, 2008. Text pp. 21, 107, 118; ill. p. 71 (color).

Tallack, Douglas. “Art as Diplomacy.” Journal of American Studies 42, no. 1 (Apr. 2008): 141–145. Text p. 143.

Foster, Carter E., ed. Edward Hopper. (exh. cat., Milan: Palazzo Reale). Milan: Skira editore, 2009. Cat. 5.37, Text p. 261, cat. no. 5.37 (checklist); ill. p. 189, cat. no. 5.37 (color).

Nemerov, Alexander. To Make a World: George Ault and 1940s America. (exh. cat. Smithsonian American Art Museum). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian American Art Museum and New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011. Text, pp. 38–40, 69; ill. p. 39, fig. 20 (color).

Nemerov, Alexander. "To Make a World: George Ault and 1940s America." American Art Review 23, no. 2 (March–April 2011): 118–125, 127–128. Ill. p. 121 (color).

Ottinger, Didier and Tomàs Llorens. Hopper. (exh. cat. Museo Thyssen–Bornemisza, Madrid, Spain and Réunion des Musées Nationaux–Grand Palais, Paris, France). Paris, France: Réunion des Musées Nationaux–Grand Palais, 2012. Text, pp. 42, 291, 337; ill. cat. no. 138, p. 214 (color).

Ottinger, Didier and Tomàs Llorens. Hopper. (exh. cat. Réunion des Musées Nationaux–Grand Palais, Paris, France). Paris, France: Réunion des Musées Nationaux–Grand Palais, 2012. (French edition). Text pp. 41, 291, 337; ill. p. 214, cat. no. 138 (color).

Ottinger, Didier and Tomàs Llorens. Hopper. (exh. cat. Museo Thyssen–Bornemisza, Madrid, Spain). Madrid, Spain: Museo Thyssen Bornemisza, 2012. (Spanish edition). Text, p. 50; ill. p. 133, cat. no. 52 (color).

Cueff, Alain. Edward Hopper: Entractes. Paris: Flammarion, 2012. Text p. 133, 137.

Bon, François. Dehors est la ville. Paris: Le Tiers Livre, 2014. Revised and expanded digital edition. Accessed December 22, 2016. Ill. (color).

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