switch views:
  • view lightbox
  • view single item
  • view list

Sanford Robinson Gifford

Born: 1823, Greenfield, New York, United States of America
Died: 1880, New York, New York, United States of America

Hunter Mountain, Twilight
1866

Oil on canvas
Overall: 30 5/8 x 54 1/8in. (77.8 x 137.5cm)
Frame: 44 1/2 x 68 3/16 x 5in. (113 x 173.2 x 12.7cm)
Terra Foundation for American Art, Daniel J. Terra Collection, 1999.57
Signed: Lower right: S.R. Gifford 1866
Artist Name: []

Interpretation

Hunter Mountain, Twilight is one of several paintings Sanford Gifford made of mountainous scenery at the close of day. Hunter Mountain, once thought to be the Catskills’ tallest summit, is seen shrouded in pale blue haze, silhouetted against a glowing pastel-tinted sky accentuated by a slender crescent moon, a single star, and distant reddish clouds. The gentle slopes of the valley in the foreground inversely echo the brooding profile of the mountain. By a stream, grazing cows tended by a cowherd and a house with lighted windows and smoke curling from its chimney underscore the mood of calm repose and domesticity. The numerous tree stumps and boulders that litter the foreground inject a note of disquiet, however, as they mark the degradation of nature attendant on settlement and cultivation. The contrast between such signs of destruction and the scene’s luminous aura of repose induce a mood of melancholy reflection.

A number of Gifford’s contemporaries also painted images of the wilderness at sunset and of tree stumps as scars on the land. In addition to showing the destruction of the wild natural scenery that had come to symbolize America, these motifs were metaphors for the devastation of the national conflict that eventually resulted in civil war. Only a few years before painting Hunter Mountain, Twilight, Gifford himself served in the Union army, although his art makes only oblique references to his experience of the conflict.

Hunter Mountain, Twilight is informed not only by such great national issues but by the artist’s intimate connection to the region it presents. Set in the vicinity of the artist’s native Hudson, New York, Gifford’s painting appears to be an image of newly settled wilderness; in fact, it presents a secondary development of reclaimed land: a dairy farm situated on ground that is stripped bare of its hemlock trees to harvest tannin, an essential ingredient in the process of tanning hides and leather. Gifford’s grandfather was a shoemaker and tanner, and during the artist’s youth one of the Catskills’ largest tanneries was sited at the base of Hunter Mountain. The despoiled landscape of Hunter Mountain, Twilight reflects the then-contemporary concern for the preservation of nature, as former wilderness regions were transformed by development.

Among the many American patrons of landscape painting who appreciated such themes was Gifford’s friend James W. Pinchot, a New York merchant and passionate conservationist who founded the Yale School of Forestry. Even before Hunter Mountain, Twilight was exhibited to great acclaim at the National Academy of Design in 1866, Pinchot had purchased the work; eventually it became the property of his son Gifford, the artist’s godson as well as namesake, who became America’s first professional forester and a pioneering environmentalist.

Return to top

Provenance

The artist
James Wallace Pinchot, New York
Governor Gifford Pinchot, Pennsylvania, 1907
Douglas Collins, Longmeadow, Massachusetts, 1946
Vose Galleries, Boston, Massachusetts
The Lano Collection, Washington, D.C.
Daniel J. Terra Collection, Chicago, Illinois, 1983
Terra Foundation for the Arts Collection, Chicago, Illinois, 1999

Return to top

Exhibition History

Forty-first Annual Exhibition, National Academy of Design, New York, New York, 1866, no. 360 (as Hunter Mountain, Twilight). [exh. cat.]

Exposition Universelle, Paris, France, April 1–October 1867, no. 18 (as Le Crépuscule sur le mont Hunter). [exh. cat.]

Works from the American Art Department of the Paris Universal Exposition, National Academy of Design, New York, New York, Exhibition of the American Society of Painters in Water Colors, 1867, no. 669 (as Twilight on Mount Hunter).

Exhibition, Yale School of Fine Arts, New Haven, Connecticut, 1870, no. 10 (as Hunter Mountain).

Exhibition, Yale School of Fine Arts, New Haven, Connecticut, July 6, 1871, no. 85 (as Twilight on Hunter Mountain).

Exhibition, Yale School of Fine Arts, New Haven, Connecticut, 1871, no. 53 (as Twilight on Hunter Mountain, Catskill).

Exhibition, Yale School of Fine Arts, New Haven, Connecticut, 1874, no. 44 (as Hunter Mountain, Catskill).

Exhibition, Yale School of Fine Arts, New Haven, Connecticut, 1875, no. 10 (as Hunter Mountain, Catskill).

Centennial Loan Exhibition of Paintings, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, 1876, no. 181 (as Hunter Mt., Catskills).

Loan Exhibition in Aid of the Society of Decorative Arts, National Academy of Design, New York, New York, 1878, no. 82 (as Hunter Mountain).

Gifford Memorial Meeting of the Century Club, Century Club, New York, New York, 1880.

"Loan Collection of Paintings in the West and East Galleries," The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, April–October 1880, no. 181 (as Hunter Mountain, Catskills). [exh. cat.]

Memorial Collection of Works of the Late Sanford R. Gifford, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, October 1880–March 1881, no. 20 (as Hunter Mountain, Catskill Mountains). [exh. cat.]

The American Scene: A Survey of the Life and Landscape of the 19th Century, Hirschl & Adler Galleries, New York, New York (organizer). Venue: Hirschl & Adler Galleries, New York, New York, 1969 (as Twilight on Hunter Mountain). [exh. cat.]

Sanford Robinson Gifford: 1823–1880, University of Texas Art Museum, Austin, Texas (organizer). Venues: University of Texas Art Museum, Austin, Texas, October 25–December 13, 1970; Albany Institute of History and Art, Albany, New York, December 28, 1970–January 31, 1971; Hirschl & Adler Galleries, Inc., New York, New York, February 8–27, 1971 (no. 35 as Twilight on Hunter Mountain). [exh. cat.]

The American Frontier: Images and Myths, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York (organizer). Venue: Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, New York, June 26–September 16, 1973. [exh. cat.]

Themes in American Painting, Grand Rapids Art Museum, Grand Rapids, Michigan (organizer). Venue: Grand Rapids Art Museum, Grand Rapids, Michigan, October 1–November 30, 1977. [exh. cat.]

American Light: The Luminist Movement, 1850–1875, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. (organizer). Venue: National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1980 (as Twilight on Hunter Mountain). [exh. cat.]

Solitude: Inner Visions in American Art, Terra Museum of American Art, Evanston, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Evanston, Illinois, September 25–December 30, 1982.

Masterworks in American Art from the Daniel J. Terra Collection, Terra Museum of American Art, Evanston, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Evanston, Illinois, April 27–September 12, 1985.

A Proud Heritage: Two Centuries of American Art, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, April 21–June 21, 1987. [exh. cat.]

American Paradise: The World of the Hudson River School, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York (organizer). Venue: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, October 4, 1987–January 3, 1988. [exh. cat.]

Collection Cameo, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, December 1993.

Selected Works from the Collections: Two Hundred Years of American Art, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, April 12–August 27, 1997.

The City and the Country: American Perspectives, 1870–1920, Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France (organizer). Venue: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, December 10, 1999–May 7, 2000 (in modified form). [exh. cat.]

Permanent collection installation, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, December 9–February 11, 2001.

Héroïque et le quotidien: les artistes américains, 1820–1920 (The Extraordinary and the Everyday: American Perspectives, 1820–1920), Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France (organizer). Venue: Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France, April 1–November 30, 2001. [exh. cat.]

American Sublime: Landscape Painting in the United States, 1820–1880, Tate Britain, London, England (organizer). Venues: Tate Britain, London, England, February 20–May 19, 2002; Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 17–August 25, 2002; The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis, Minnesota, September 22–November 17, 2002. [exh. cat.]

The People Work: American Perspectives, 1840–1940 (Le Travail à l'oeuvre: les artistes américains, 1840–1940), Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizer). Venues: Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, March 15–May 25, 2003; Musée d'Art Américain Giverny, France, June 8–August 17, 2003. [exh. cat.]

Hudson River School Visions: The Landscapes of Sanford R. Gifford, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York and National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. (organizer). Venues: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York, October 8, 2003–February 8, 2004; Amon Carter Museum of Art, Fort Worth, Texas, March 6–May 16, 2004; National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., June 27–September 26, 2004. [exh. cat.]

Expanded Galleries of American Art with Loans from the Terra Foundation for American Art Collection, The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, April 15, 2005–August 2011.

Die Düsseldorfer Malerschule und ihre internationale Ausstrahlung 1819–1918," Museum Kunstpalast, Düsseldorf, Germany (organizer). Venue: Museum Kunstpalast, Düsseldorf, Germany, September 23, 2011–January 23, 2012. [exh. cat.]

Bold, Cautious, True: Walt Whitman and American Art of the Civil War Era, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts (organizer); Venue: Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, Virginia, June 2–August 26, 2012.

Home Front: Daily Life in the Civil War North, Terra Foundation for American Art, Chicago, Illinois and The Newberry Library, Chicago, Illinois (organizers). Venue: The Newberry Library, Chicago, Illinois, September 26, 2013–March 24, 2014. [exh. cat.]

Galleries of American Art with Loans from the Terra Foundation for American Art Collection, The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, April 2014–May 2015.

Picturing the Americas: Landscape Painting from Tierra del Fuego to the Arctic, Terra Foundation for American Art, Chicago, Illinois, in partnership with the Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, Canada and Pinacoteca de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (organizers). Venues: Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, Canada, June 20–September 7, 2015; Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas, November 6, 2015–January 18, 2016, Pinacoteca de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, February 27–May 29, 2016. [exh. cat.]

Continental Shift: Nineteenth Century American and Australian Landscape Painting, Art Gallery of Western Australia, Perth, Australia and Terra Foundation for American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizers). Venue: Art Gallery of Western Australia, July 30, 2016–February 5, 2017. [exh. cat.]

Not as the Songs of other Lands: 19th century Australian and American Landscape Painting, Ian Potter Museum of Art, Melbourne, Australia and Terra Foundation for American Art, Chicago, Illinois (organizers). Venue: Ian Potter Museum of Art, March 14–June 11, 2017.

Return to top

Published References

“Fine Arts: National Academy of Design.” Albion 44 (May 12, 1866): 225. Text p. 225.

E. B., “Art: About Landscapes at the Academy.” The Round Table 3:37 (May 19, 1866): 311. Text p. 311.

“National Academy of Design.” The American Art Journal 5:7 (June 7, 1866): 100–101. Text p. 100 (as Hunter Mountain—Twilight).

Leslie, Frank. Report of the United States Commissioners to the Paris Universal Exposition. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1868. Text p. 9 (as Twilight on Mount Hunter).

“Reception at the Academy of Design.” Watson’s Art Journal 8:12 (January 11, 1868): 169. Text p. 169 (as Twilight on Mount Hunter).

Blake, William P., ed. Reports of the United States Commissioners to the Paris Universal Exposition. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1870. Text p. 9 (as Twilight on Mount Hunter).

Benson, Eugene. “Art at Yale College.” The Art Review 1, no. 3 (January 1871): 5-6. Text p. 5 (as Hunter Mountain at Twilight).

“Article VIII.—American Landscape Painters.” New Englander 32, no. 122 (January 1873): 140–152. Text p. 146 (as Hunter Mountain, Catskill).

Sheldon, George W. American Painters. New York: Benjamin Blom, Inc., 1879. Reprint. New York: Benjamin Blom, Inc., 1972. Text p. 19.

Metropolitan Museum of Art Handbook No. 6: Loan Collection of Paintings in the West and East Galleries (exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1880. Text p. 10, cat. no. 181 (as Hunter Mt., Catskills).

Metropolitan Museum of Art Handbook No. 6: Loan Collection of Paintings in the West and East Galleries (exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1880. Text p. 3 (as Twilight on Hunter Mountain); p. 5, cat. no. 200 (as Hunter Mountain, Catskill Mountains).

“Fine Arts: The Gifford Collection at the Metropolitan Art Museum.” The Independent 32, no. 1666 (November 4, 1880): 7–8. Text p. 7 (as Hunter Mountain).

A Memorial Catalogue of the Paintings of Sanford Robinson Gifford, N.A. (exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1881. Cat. no. 417, p. 31 (as Hunter Mountain, in the Catskills, after Sunset).

Weiss, Ila. Sanford Robinson Gifford: 1823–1880. PhD dissertation, Columbia University, 1968. Text pp. 244 (as Hunter Mt. in the Catskills, after sunset), 438n16.

Weiss, Ila. Sanford Robinson Gifford (1823–1880). New York: Garland Publishing, Inc. Text pp. 244 (as Hunter Mt. in the Catskills, after sunset), 438n16.

The American Scene: A Survey of the Life and Landscape of the 19th Century. (exh. cat., Hirschl & Adler Galleries, Inc). New York: Hirschl & Adler Galleries, Inc., 1969. Pl. 29, p. 30 (color as Twilight on Hunter Mountain).

Cikovsky, Jr., Nicolai. Sanford Robinson Gifford [1823–1880]. (exh. cat., University of Texas Art Museum). Austin, Texas: University of Texas, 1970. Text p. 27, no. 35 (checklist, as Twilight on Hunter Mountain); ill. p. 59, no. 35 (black & white, as Twilight on Hunter Mountain).

Sherrill, Sarah B. "Current and Upcoming: Sanford Robinson Gifford, landscape painter." The Magazine Antiques 98, no. 6 (December 1970): 834, 838. Ill. p. 834 (black & white).

The National Academy of Design Exhibition Record, 1861–1900. Volume I. New York: Kennedy Galleries, Inc., 1973. Text p. 341, no. 360.

Stebbins, Theodore E., Jr. “The Bierstadt Exhibition and Catalogue.” American Art Journal 5, no. 1 (May 1973): 90-92. Text p. 91 (as Twilight on Hunter Mountain).

Novak, Barbara. "The Double-Edged Axe." Art in America 64 (January/February 1976): 45-50. Ill. p. 48 (color).

Cikovsky, Nicolai, Jr. “Winslow Homer’s ‘Prisoners from the Front.’” Metropolitan Museum Journal 12 (1977): 155–172. Text p. 172 (as Twilight on Hunter Mountain).

Janson, Anthony F. “Worthington Whittredge: The Development of a Hudson River Painter, 1860–1868.” The American Art Journal 11, no. 2 (April 1979): 71-84. Text p. 80 (as Twilight at Hunter Mountain).

Wilmerding, John. American Light: The Luminist Movement, 1850-1875. Washington: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1980. Text p. 88; ill. p. 65, pl. 14 (color, as Twilight on Hunter Mountain); p. 88, fig. 85 (black & white, as Twilight on Hunter Mountain).

Wilmerding, John. "American Light: The Luminist Movement, 1850–1875." The Magazine Antiques 117:4 (April 1980): 847-54. Ill. p. 853 (color, as Twilight on Hunter Mountain).

Novak, Barbara. Nature and Culture: American Landscape and Painting, 1825–1875. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980. Text p. 164; ill. p. 158, no. 79 (black & white, as Twilight on Hunter Mountain).

Sokol, David M. Solitude: Inner Visions in American Art. (exh. cat., Terra Museum of American Art). Evanston, Illinois: Terra Museum of American Art, 1982. Text p. 6; ill. p. 4, no. 4 (color).

Hemphill, Christopher. "Daniel Terra and His Collection." Town & Country (February 1984): 196.

Troyen, Carol. "Innocents Abroad: American Painters at the 1867 Exposition Universelle, Paris." American Art Journal 16, no. 4 (Autumn 1984): 2–29. Text pp. 5, 6, 24; ill. p. 10, fig. 8 (black & white).

Atkinson, D. Scott et al. A Proud Heritage: Two Centuries of American Art. Edited by Terry A. Neff. (exh. cat., Terra Museum of American Art). Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 1987. Ill. p. 135, pl. T-26 (color).

Weiss, Ila. Poetic Landscape: The Art and Experience of Sanford R. Gifford. Newark, Delaware: University of Delaware Press, 1987. Text p. 105, 106, 162, 257, 259-60; ill. p. 257 (black & white).

Avery, Kevin J. et al. American Paradise: The World of the Hudson River School. (exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1987. Text pp. 229-31; ill. 230 (color).

Myers, Kenneth. The Catskills: Painters, Writers, and Tourists in the Mountains, 1820-1895. (exh. cat., The Hudson River Museum of Westchester). Yonkers, New York: The Hudson River Museum of Westchester, 1988. Text pp. 135-36.

McGrath, Robert L. “The Tree and the Stump: Hieroglyphics of the Sacred Forest.” Journal of Forest History 33:2 (April 1989): 60-59. Text pp. 65-67; ill. p. 66, fig. 6 (black & white).

Sweeney, J. Gray. "The Nude of Landscape Painting: Emblematic Personification in the Art of the Hudson River School." Smithsonian Studies in American Art (Fall 1989): 43-65. Text pp. 43-65; fig. 1, p. 44 (color).

Buisseret, David, ed. From Sea Charts to Satellite Images: Interpreting North American History through Maps. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1990. Text p. 141; pl. 5.12, p. 140 (black & white).

McGrath, Robert L. "The Tree and the Stump: Hieroglyphics of the Sacred Forest." Journal of Forestry (August 1991): 17-21. Text p. 18; fig. 6, p. 18.

Gaehtgens, Thomas W. and Heinz Ickstadt, eds. American Icons: Transatlantic Perspectives on 18th- and 19th-Century American Art. Santa Monica, California: The Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities, 1992. Ill. p. 98, no. 3 (black & white).

Hunter Mountain, Twilight, Sanford Robinson Gifford. Collection Cameo sheet, Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Illinois, December 1993. Ill. (black & white).

Vallino, Fabienne-Charlotte Oraezie. "Alle radici dell'etica ambientale: pensiero sulla natura, wilderness e creativita artistica negli Stati Uniti del XIX secolo." Storia dell'Arte. Rome, Italy: Universita degli Studi della Tuscia, 1993. Text p. 249; ill. p. 228, fig. XII.

Novak, Barbara. Nature and Culture: American Landscape and Painting, 1825–1875, rev. ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Text p. 164; ill. p. 158, no. 79 (black & white, as Twilight on Hunter Mountan).

Miller, Char. “All in the Family: The Pinchots of Milford.” Pennsylvania History: A Journal of Mid-Atlantic Studies 66, no. 2 (Spring 1999): 117-142. Text pp. 20-21.

Conron, John. American Picturesque. University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000. Text p. 128; ill. pl. xvii (color, as Twilight on Hunter Mountain).

Serra, Tomas Llorens. Explorar el Eden: Paisaje Americano Del Siglo XIX. (exh. cat., Fundación Colección Thyssen-Bornemisza Madrid). Madrid, Spain: Fundacion Colección Thyssen-Bornemisza, 2000. Text p. 38; ill. p. 39 (black & white).

Anderson, Heather. “A River Runs Through It: Art Education and a River Environment.” Art Education 53, no. 6 (November 2000): 13-18. Text p. 17.

"From a Woodland Elegy, A Rhapsody in Green: Hunter Mountain Paintings Spurred Recovery." The New York Times (June 7, 2001): Section C. Ill. p. C18.

Post, Paul. “Literary work immortalizes local landscape.” Sunday Freeman (October 21, 2001): 1, 48. Text pp. 1, 48. Ill. p. 1 (black & white).

Miller, Char. Gifford Pinchot and the Making of Modern Environmentalism. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2001. Text pp. 108–109; ill. cover (color).

Bourguignon, Katherine M. and Elizabeth Kennedy. An American Point of View: The Daniel J. Terra Collection. Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 2002. Text pp. 70, 196; ill. pp. 71 (color), 196 (black & white).

Bourguignon, Katherine M. and Elizabeth Kennedy. Un regard transatlantique. La collection d'art américain de Daniel J. Terra. Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 2002. Text pp. 70, 196; ill. pp. 71 (color), 196 (black & white).

Wilton, Andrew and Tim Barringer. American Sublime: Landscape Painting in the United States, 1820–1880. (exh. cat., Tate Britain). London, England: Tate Publishing, 2002. Text pp. 27, 51, 120, 257–8; ill. p 121 (color).

Kennedy, Elizabeth. "The Terra Museum of American Art." American Art Review (December 2002): 126-41. Text p. 132.

Goddard-Taylor, Gayle. "Intelligent Tinkering." Sanctuary: The Journal of the Massachusetts Audubon Society (Winter 2002/2003): Text p. 4; ill. p. 4 (color).

Bourguignon, Katherine M. and Elizabeth Kennedy. The People Work: American Perspectives, 1840–1940. (exh. cat., Terra Museum of American Art). Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 2003. Text pp. 17, 29 (checklist); ill. p. 17, fig. 3 (black & white).

Bourguignon, Katherine M. and Elizabeth Kennedy. Le Travail à l'oeuvre: les artistes américains, 1840–1940. (exh. cat., Terra Museum of American Art). Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for the Arts, 2003. Text pp. 17, 29 (checklist); ill. p. 17, fig. 3 (black & white).

Glueck, Grace. "Nature with Golden Haze or Ominous Thunderheads." New York Times (November 7, 2003). Ill. (black & white detail).

Sweeney, J. Gray. "Inventing Luminism: 'Labels are the Dickens.'" Oxford Art Journal 26, no. 2 (2003): 95-120. Ill. p. 113, fig. 4 (black & white).

Avery, Kevin J. and Franklin Kelly, eds. Hudson River School Visions: The Landscapes of Sanford R. Gifford. (exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2003. Text pp. 4, 17, 37, 42–45, 50nn. 93 and 98, pp. 78, 98, 117, 121, 146, 172, 173, 174, 175-76, 178, 184, 202, 205, 208, 222, 238; ill. p. 177, no. 41 (color).

Czestochowski, Joseph S. Georgia O’Keeffe: Visions of the Sublime. Memphis, TN: Torch Press and International Arts, 2004. Ill. pl. 92 (color).

Earenfight, Phillip and Nancy Siegel, eds. Within the Landscape: Essays on Nineteenth–Century American Art and Culture. University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2005. Text: pp. x, xx, 29, 31, 40, 176–77, 207; ill. p. 30, fig. 11 (black & white), pl. XVIII (color).

Mills, Cynthia. “Emerging Themes, Emerging Voices.” American Art 21:2 (Summer 2007): 2-14. Ill. p. 7 (color).

Novak, Barbara. Nature and Culture: American Landscape and Painting, 1825–1875, 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Text p. 142; ill. no. 12 (color).

Brownlee, Peter John. Manifest Destiny / Manifest Responsibility: Environmentalism and the Art of the American Landscape. (exh. cat., Loyola University Museum of Art, Chicago, Illinois). Chicago, Illinois: Terra Foundation for American Art and Loyola University Museum of Art, 2008. Text pp. 6, 17; Ill. p. 16 (color).

Hope, Diane S. "Reporting the Future: A Visual Parable of Environmental Ethics in Robert and Shana ParkeHarrison's The Architect's Brother" Visual Communication Quarterly 16, no. 1 (January - March 2009): 32-49. Text p. 46; ill p. 43 (black & white).

Wolfe, Ann M. and Colin M. Robertson. Chester Arnold / On Earth as it is in Heaven. Reno: Nevada Museum of Art, 2010. Text p. 46; ill. p. 48, fig. 39 (color).

Baumgärtel, Bettina, ed. Die Düsseldorfer Malerschule und ihre internationale Ausstrahlung 1819–1918, Vol. I–II. (exh. cat., Museum Kunstpalast, Düsseldorf, Germany). Düsseldorf: Museum Kunstpalast, 2011. Text Vol. II, p. 372; ill. p. 372, cat. no. 312 (color).

Baumgärtel, Bettina, ed. The Düsseldorf School of Painting and its International Influence 1819–1918. (exh. cat. Museum Kunstpalast, Düsseldorf, Germany). Düsseldorf: Museum Kunstpalast, 2011. Ill. p. 274, cat. no. 120 (color).

Sachs, Aaron. Arcadian America: The Death and Life of an Environmental Tradition. New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 2013. Text, pp. 143–44, ill. p. 142, fig. 31 (black & white).

Brownlee, Peter John, Sarah Burns, Diane Dillon, Daniel Greene, and Scott Manning Stevens. Home Front: Daily Life in the Civil War North.(exh. cat., Terra Foundation for American Art and Newberry Library). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013. Text pp. 154, 155, 162 (checklist); ill. p. 155, fig. 90 (color).

Brownlee, Peter John, Valéria Piccoli, and Georgiana Uhlyarik, eds. Picturing the Americas: Landscape Painting from Tierra del Fuego to the Arctic. (exh. cat., Art Gallery of Ontario, Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo and the Terra Foundation for American Art). Toronto, Ontario: Art Gallery of Ontario in association with Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, 2015. Text pp. 41, 133; ill. p. 41, fig. 2 (color).

Brownlee, Peter John, Valéria Piccoli, and Georgiana Uhlyarik, eds. Paisaje en las Américas: Pinturas desde la Tierra del Fuego al Artico. (exh. cat., Art Gallery of Ontario, Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo and the Terra Foundation for American Art). Toronto, Ontario: Art Gallery of Ontario in association with Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, 2015. Text pp. 41, 133; ill. p. 41, fig. 2 (color).

Brownlee, Peter John, Valéria Piccoli, and Georgiana Uhlyarik, eds. Paisagem nas Américas: Pinturas da Terra do Fogo ao Artico. (exh. cat., Art Gallery of Ontario, Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo and the Terra Foundation for American Art). Toronto, Ontario: Art Gallery of Ontario in association with Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, 2015. Text pp. 41, 133; ill. p. 41, fig. 2 (color).

Brownlee, Peter John, Valéria Piccoli, and Georgiana Uhlyarik. “New Worlds, New Art: Landscape painting in all the Americas, a touring exhibition and an inquiry.” The Magazine Antiques 182, no. 6 (November/December 2015): 72-81. Text pp. 77-78; ill. p. 76, fig. 7 (color).

Lyons, Maura. “Nature Defamiliarized: Picturing New Relationships between Humans and Nonhuman Nature in Northern Landscapes from the American Civil War.” Panorama: The Journal of the Association of Historians of American Art 1, no. 1 (winter 2015). Accessed February 29, 2016. http://journalpanorama.org/nature-defamiliarized-picturing-new-relationships-between-humans-and-nonhuman-nature-in-northern-landscapes-from-the-american-civil-war/

Sharp, Kevin, ed. Wild Spaces, Open Seasons: Hunting and Fishing in American Art. (exh. cat., Dixon Gallery and Gardens, Joslyn Art Museum, Shelburne Museum, and Amon Carter Museum of Art). Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 2016. Text p. 140; ill. 141 (color).

Brenes, Ietza Azucena Zepeda. Review of Picturing the Americas: Landscape Painting from Tierra Del Fuego to the Arctic, by Peter John Brownlee, Valeria Piccoli, and Georgiana Uhlyarik (eds.). Journal für Kunstgeschichte 20, no. 2 (February 2016): 166–179. Text p. 179.

Avery, Kevin. Sanford R. Gifford in the Catskills. (exh. cat., Thomas Cole National Historic Site). Catskill, New York: Thomas Cole National Historic Site, 2017.Text p. 29; ill.29 (color).

Return to top

Sign on